A long-lived perennial, evergreen growing to an average of 9 feet. Stems are short and spear shaped, buds are small and scaly. It has dark green leaves and flowers that are solitary and funnel shaped blooming in May and June. Seeds mature July to August. It is mostly palatable to wildlife in the winter months and is recommended distributed sites in the Intermountain West. Has long taproots that grow well in coarse textured, deep, well-drained soils. Found in the intermountain west of the Rocky Mountains to California and in northern Arizona and New Mexico.
An evergreen shrub growing up to 6 feet high. It is more shrub- like appearance, having numerous branches at the base. Its small grayish, downy leaves are innately divided into linear divisions, attached alternately on slender stems, and curved slightly downward. Fruit heads are silvery puffs and the plumes are white or pinkish. A white rose like flower with yellow centers blooms April through June. It prefers gravelly soils and is found on rocky slopes and hillsides. It has poor palatability that is sometime grazed when other forages are limited. Found throughout the Southwest in deserts.
Basin Big Sagebrush
A perennial, evergreen shrub averaging 4 feet high but can grow as high as 15 feet. The tall rounded shrubs with short branched, woody trunks. Numerous yellow tubular flowers cover the shrub blooming July to September. Prefers moderately shallow to deep, well drained, sandy to silt loam soils of neutral to slightly alkaline reaction and is drought tolerant. It supplies better cover for livestock and wildlife than its palatability. Basin Big sagebrush is distributed throughout the western United States.
A long-lived evergreen, dense shrub growing between 6 to 12 high. Flower growth process begins as small pinkish urns that mature into red berries. The flower blooms in the spring. Prefers growing in the open on sand dunes, but will grow under the partial shade of forest. Grow well in coarse will drained sandy and acidic soils in full sun. It is cold tolerant and used for reclamation and as a soil stabilizer. It is popular ground cover used in many landscapes due to its thick vegetative mat. Located in all upper states of the United States and sometimes as south as New Mexico and Arizona.
Birch-Leaf Mountain Mahogany
A shrub or small deciduous tree growing to 12 feet tall. Severe drought, changes of climate, and the poor soil may cause the growth to be
stunted. The bark is grayish in color, and can be scaly, with twigs that are spur like and a bright reddish brown. The single small dry fruits have spiral, somewhat silky plumes 1-_ to 2 long, with feathery tails on the end. There are clusters of 2-3 apetalus flowers, each have five broad-triangular sepals and many stamens, blooming from March to June. It is fire resistiant sprouting new growth quickly from its roots. Most common in the California Chaparral Mountains and dry, rocky slopes from South Dakota to Mexico.
A deciduous, native, monoecious shrub, growing 2 to 8 feet tall. It has moderate to dense vegetation with spiny appearance and the bark is yellowishgray to light brown with deep grooves. Flowers are green with hint of red; the males are cone-like with terminal spikes and the females are wing-like, from June to August. The fruit is tan or reddish is color with a small brown seed in the center. Th e hardy shrub is common in saline or alkaline, deep clay, silty clay, sandy clay, or loam soils. Located in the Northern parts of the Rocky Mountain region.
A evergreen, native shrub growing 10 to 18 tall. The trunk bark is a dark reddish-brown to black and the twigs are short, rigid, light to dark reddish-brown, and becoming black with age. Flowers are oblong, and brownish to tan, blooming August to September. Seeds are flat and brown in color. The aromatic shrub preferring well drained clayey to gravelly soils that are dry and shallow. It is good forage for livestock in the winter season. Found in the foothills and desert mountain ranges of Utah and Nevada.
A evergreen, native, cool season shrub growing 3 to 15 feet. A soft wood shrub with gray to ashy bark that can appear black with age or when wet. Thorny branches produce many greenishyellow to purple flowers from March to May. Seed are dry, smooth achenes, somewhat flat, with a long, bent and twisted, thread-like stalks. It resprouts vigorously from seeds when excessive moisture is available however it most common in dry and well-drained, sandy, gravelly, and rocky soils. Established in a small Southwest region of the United States.
Blue Palo Verde
A evergreen tree growing to an average of 20 feet. It has spiny greenish trunk and branches. It blossoms thousands of five-petaled yellow dull flowers during a short growing season starting in early spring. Blue Palo Verde seeds are slightly larger and flatter, with thicker, harder shells than the other species. It grows faster and dies sooner than other species and used more as shelter than as a forage to livestock and wildlife. Found mainly in the lower half of New Mexico, Arizona and the southern tip of California.
A short-lived evergreen, deciduous leafy bush, growing 2 to 5 feet tall and wide. The herbaceous bush has leaves that are triangular greenish-gray to silvery and produce a substance, toxic to other plants in the proximity. Flowers are yellow and daisy like blooming mostly from March to June. The fragrant woody bush prefers dry gravelly slopes to open sandy washes. It is a poor forage that reproduces easily from seeds and cuttings. Occurs in the desert areas of the Southwestern United States.
A short-lived, perennial, native, warm season shrub that grows from 8 to 28 tall. The clusters of small golden-yellow flowers bloom August to October, which may remain well into the fall. The seed is brown, hairy and with chaffy scales. Beacuse it contains saponin, it is poisonous to all livestock except goats. Used for reclamation and mines as it absorbs selenium. Prefers clay loams of broad alluvial slopes, and shallow, rocky, or sandy soil and does poor saline or alkaline soils. It is drought tolerant and reproduces from seeds. Found west of the Mississippi river and almost to the Pacific coast.
Castle Valley Clover
A woody, native shrub growing 6 to 12 tall. It has two flowers, one is dark in color and glomerules arranged in panicles, the other is borne in axillary clusters, both blooming in April and May. Leaves are a light to grey green in color and its fruits are small. Often found in clay or soils, and moderate to high alkaline soils. It grows on a variably of saline soils. It can be suppressed by perennial grasses or annual weeds. Provides a palatable forage for livestock and wildlife year round. Native to eastern Utah, southwest Colorado, and northern New Mexico.
A perennial, native, deciduous, shrub or small tree rarely reaches a height of over 30 feet. The bark is smooth and grayish brown with many white flowers having elongated raceme. The fruit is deep red to dark red purple. Chokecherry is nutritious throughout the growing season; however, new leaves and growth can be poisonous during some growing season to livestock and humans. It spread by rhizomes making it a great for erosion control. Common throughout the central and northern states from the Pacific to the Atlantic oceans.
A perennial, deciduous, nativeshrub or small tree that grows between 2 to 5 feet. The large, toothed leaves have five to seven leaflets and irregularly lobed. It has many small, white flowers with an unpleasant odor blooming May to July. The fruit is white with berry like drupes that turn black when ripe. Grows well in sun or shade and found along stream banks, in swampy thickets, moist clearings and open forests at sea level to middle elevations. It tolerates allsoil types but grows best in heavy clay, well drained soils and either in sun or shade. Common among all the Northern United States.
Creeping Oregon Grape
A evergreen under shrub growing 1 to 3 feet tall. Leaves are dull green with spin edges turning deep red in the fall. The bright yellow flowers bloom in April and May. Bluish berries are similar to other fleshy varieties of grapes. Grows in all types of soil and pH balance and prefers sun or shade with moist or dry soil. It has poor palatability for livestock but good for wildlife. Commonly used by landscapers. Found east of the Rocky Mountains thru the Cascade Mountains and as far south as New Mexico.
Curl-Leaf Mountain Mahogany
A evergreen large shrub or small tree growing an average of 25 feet tall. The deeply grooved bark is reddish-brown, with leaves that are lance-shaped with rolled margins. The flowers grow in singles or clumps, lack petals and blooms from May to July. The fruit is a hard, narrow, and has sharp-pointed achenes and the tree reproduces with a quark screw shape seed. It is dense and strong and was used for cooking as it produces little smoke. Palatable to livestock primarily in the winter months. Adapted to a wide range of soil textures, most abundant in dry coarse-textured soils. Found on hills, rocky slopes, and rocky ridges, and canyons in the western United States.
A native evergreen shrub growing an average of 3 to 7 feet. The leaves are green and hairless with depressed glands on inrolled leaf edges. Flowers are tubular with 5 white petals. It has deeply roots with a taproot sometimes exceeding 16 feet making it very drought tolerant. Occurs in valleys, foothills, and slopes in well drained soils. Palatable and good quality forage for livestock and wildlife. Established in the southern desert regions of Colorado, Utah, and Nevada to Mexico.
A evergreen, perennial shrub growing 3 to 6 feet. Leaves are covered with small scales on both sides. The female and male flowers grow on separate shrubs and are both a green tan color blooming from May to August. The seed are pale brown. Grows well in arid or saline areas, sandy loam, loam and clay loam soils. Used for erosion control plant, rangelands, and road cuts. Provides high quality and nutritious forage during the cool seasons for livestock and wildlife. Found in eastern New Mexico and southwest California
from sea level to 4,000 feet.
A deciduous shrub or tree growing 20 to 30 feet. It is known for its strong trunk; has a scaly bark dark brown in color with twigs that are hairy and sticky. The flowers are similar to an orchid, white with purple to pink throats blooming April to August. Fruit matures in autumn, and remains on the tree until spring which contain tan seeds with dual hair wings. Grows in desert washes and creeks, stream banks and drainages, preferring full sun and well drained soils making it drought tolerant. Common along the Southwest boarder between the United States and Mexico.
A perennial sub-shrub averaging a foot in height and spreading up to 3 feet wide. The leaves are grayish- green, thin and needle like with smooth-edges. It has solitary flowers, white rays with a yellow disk blooming as early as March into November. Prefers full sun, and well-drained rocky, loose, or clay soils making it very drought tolerant. Commonly used for landscaping. Native throughout the southern regions of Arizona, New Mexico, and Texas.
A evergreen, native tree growing from 60 to over 150 feet tall. The bark on mature trunks is dark brown, thick, and deeply furrowed. Blue green needles have blunt or slightly rounded tips that are very fragrant. The cone has rounded scales with 3- lobed bracts ripening in late summer. Grows in both dry and moist well drained soils. Known for its strength it has been used for telephone poles and railway ties and traditionally grown for Christmas trees. Common in the Rocky Mountains and Cascade Mountains and as far south as Mexico boarder.
Synonym: Low Rabbitbrush
A deciduous, perennial, native shrub growing 1 to 4 feet tall. The small yellow flowers grow in round clusters and bloom from July to September. The light brown fruit is wedge shaped with 5 ribs and slightly barbed. Produces an abundance of small, plumed seeds and reproduces from its seeds and vigorous sprouting. Adapted to dry, well-drained, medium to coarse textured soils making it drought tolerant and is common in alkaline soils. Has no substantial value as forage but is used for reclamation. Commonly found in the western part of the United States.
A deciduous, evergreen shrub growing 1 to over 8 feet in height. Fourwing saltbush named from the four membranous winged capsules, which encompass the seed. Adapted to most soils but is best suited to deep, well drained; loamy to sandy to gravely soils. It is saline soil, and drought tolerant and somewhat tolerant of sodic soil conditions. Livestock and wildlife find it highly palatable. Excellent screens, hedges, and barriers Because of its extensive root system provides excellent erosion control it is commonly used for reclamation. The native shrub is distributed rangelands in the western United States including the Intermountain, Great Basin, and Great Plains regions.
A herbaceous perennial low, mat- forming shrub growing 6 to 18 high. Has silvery velvet foliage with taller stems flowering on the end. Small, yellow flower cluster and bloom in August. Adapts to the conditions that it finds itself living in, due to its extensive deep taproot system making it drought and cold tolerant. It is a nutritious and palatable forage for wildlife and livestock. Prefers full sun, sandy and loamy soils, requires well-drained, dry or moist soil and can grow in poor soil. Does not grow well in alkaline soils. Found on open sites from Mexico northward to Canada and Alaska.
A deciduous, perennial shrub or tree growing 6 to 30 feet tall. The shiny green leaves are round with three or four cleft lobes and in the fall changing from red to yellow. The tan acorn is the plants fruit and seed maturing in autumn, blooming in March and April, and reestablishes from the acorn. It is a predominate tree growing in dry foothills and canyon walls where the rainfall averages between 12 and 25 per year. It can grow on all soil types but it prefers moist, rich, well-drained soils. Found from the western part of Kansas thru Utah, south of Montana and almost to the Mexico border.
A evergreen, perennial subshrub growing 8 to 20 inches tall. The leaves are gray to green, narrowly linear and rounded are the tip. It has both males and female flowers; the male is brown and the females are borne on the leafy spikes and blooms June to August. The fruit is utricle with brown seeds. It is very salt and alkaline tolerant growing in poorly developed, clay or sandy soils. Provides quality forage for livestock and wildlife. Native to the state of Wyoming and the southern part of Montana.
A deciduous shrub growing 3 to 8 feet. Leaves are a glossy green with 3 to 5 rounded lobes turning yellow to red in the fall. The golden yellow long tubed flowers with red petals inserted at the top, and have a fragrance of cloves, blooming in the April to June. The fruit is a berry ripening to a dark purple with numerous seeds. Prefers fertile, moist, well drained soils on cliffs, rocky slopes, ravines, bluffs, open hillside, and often sandy areas. A great food source for birds and small mammals. Easily reproduced from seeds, cuttings, or with rhizomatous roots. Found throughout most of the western United States.
Green Mormon Tea
A semi-evergreen shrub growing 2 to 4 feet in height. Leaves are bright green with tiny scales and the golden flowers blooming spring to early summer. Prefers full sun and sandy or rocky, well-drained soils, on the rocky slopes and valley plains; cold and drought tolerant. The plants are relatively slow growing and slow to reestablished by seeds. Good palatability for livestock and wildlife and great for xeriscape landscaping. Found across mainly in Utah and Nevada and in some of the surrounding states.
A conifer evergreen, perennial tree growing between 70 and 150 feet. Slender trunk with thin rigid bark; the wood is hard, brittle, and straight grained. The needle like leaves that form in twisted bundles of two. Flowers are orange-red cones blooming in clusters in May. ThThe small thin shell seeds are cone shaped, yellow-brown in color with sharp prickles, and reproduce well after fire, ripening in January and February. Grows best on moist, medium-textured soils. Used for lumber and other mill products and provide important cover for wildlife and range cattle. Adapted to high mountain slopes at elevations in the Middle to Northwestern United States.
A evergreen, perennial mat-forming shrub growing between 8 and 20 inches tall. ThThe white bark is thick and spongy; leaves are thin and lance shaped with white hairs and fruits that are utricle. ThThe solitary yellow to light brown flowers, grows on an erect and slender stem, blooming from April to early June. Prefers moderately deep and deep alkaline or saline soils. It is a fair forage for livestock and wildlife, but can be poisonous if too much is consumed. Native along the Colorado and Nevada border.
A evergreen shrub grows an average of 8 feet tall can reach as tall as 20 feet. Small leaves are 5-lobed, and covered with tiny, glandular-dotted hairs that are sticky to the touch. ThThe white, 5 petal flower has many yellow stamens blooming from midspring until summer. With enough moisture it can bloom in the fall as well. The pistil mature into seeds; when ripe they have a long-tailed hair act like tiny parachutes and aid the wind in both dispersing the seeds and helping drill the seeds into the ground. Prefers full sun, sandy and loamy soils and requires well-drained, dry or moist soil. ThThe plant prefers alkaline soils. Wildlife find the forage palatable and small mammals eat the seeds. Found in the southwest of the United States and into Mexico.
Mountain Big Sagebrush
A perennial, evergreen, invasive shrub growing 2 to 5 feet. Younger barker is a silvery or gray turning stringy and black with age. Leaves are wedge to fan-shaped and are usually three-lobed at tips. Flowers bloom in June with thousands of seeds maturing in the fall. ThThe seeds do not reproduce until the following spring. Grows well in sandy or loamy soil that is well drained with a low salinity level. Provides good forage and cover for wildlife. Found on arid plains, valleys, foothills and mountain slopes occurring in the northwest region of the United States.
A perennial shrub that grows from 1 to 2 feet high. The leaves are densely hairy, somewhat sticky, and 3 to 5 lobed. The small white to rose-purple flowers grow in groups of 3 to 7 cover the plant by the hundreds blooming June to August. It produces red berries that are covered with spinny bristles which are eatable but not very palatable. Growing near riverbanks and in canyons as well as on exposed slopes and ridges. Found across the western half of the Untied States.
A deciduous, perennial shrub growing 2 to 5 feet. Leaves are usually slightly hairy. ThThe pink or white bell shaped flowers blooming in late spring. Seeds are small, light green to white in color. Occurring in woodlands, and moist areas. Reproduces by its seeds, sometimes by layering, and rhizomatous roots. Favors well drained, sandy loam to clay loam soils, and does not tolerate alkalinity or salinity soils. Good forage for wildlife and livestock, but not very palatable. Also used for landscapes and recreational planting. Found central northern states to north Texas.
Synonym: Spanish Bayonet | Small
A perennial shrub growing an average of 2 to 3 feet tall. The leaves are stiff, tough fibrous horizontal or upright stem bearing one or more erect crowns with inrolled edges and sharp tips that can cause harm to animals and humans. Ten to fifteen, green white flowers grow on a spike 2 to 3 feet long, blooming in June and July. At maturity, the large capsules enclose long black seeds. Grows on dry prairie slopes and
open lands. Native west of the Missouri River to the Rocky Mountains, and North Dakota to Texas.
Over 40 different species.
Nevada Mormon Tea
A deciduous, semi-evergreen shrub growing 2 to 5 feet. The bark is gray; twigs are pale green, becoming yellow with age with tiny scales leaves at the stem joints. The individual flowers male and female grow on separate shrubs and bloom in early spring. Seed cones are brown herbaceous and usually grow in pairs. Prefers full sun with well-drained sandy, and loamy soils. It is drought and lime tolerant and grows well in any alkaline soil. Common on dry, rocky slopes and hills, rarely in sandy flat areas. Found throughout Nevada and into the surrounding states.
A perennial, deciduous shrub growing up to 10 feet tall. The leaves are usually round tipped and have 5 to 7 leaflets with a pair of prickles at the base. Pink flowers resemble a single rose, thus the name, blooming May to July. Prefers full sun meadows with moist to fairly dry, but generally are nitrogen rich, well drained, loamy to sandy type soils in lower to middle elevations. Provides food and shelter for birds and small animals as well as forage for wildlife. Because of it spreading root system it makes a great soil binder and used for reclamation or landscaping. Found West of the Rocky Mountains to the Northwest United States.
A perennial shrub growing 1 to 2 feet. Leaves are slender with green tops and silver, hairy undersides when young. Delicate bright yellow flowers with 3lobes on the end, is similar to a daisy, blooming March to September with adequate moisture. Flowers last longer cut, becoming paper like. Fruit is plentiful like a marigold and contains the seed. Prefers full sun, well drained sandy, gravelly, and rocky soils. Growing in California to Utah and Arizona, south into northern Mexico.
A evergreen tree that is fast growing up to 150 feet. The scaly bark is orange- brown; needles area a lush green with toothed edges and pointed ends. Flowers are red-brown with white- fringed blooming from April to June. Male cones are orange or yellow and are located in small clusters near the tips of the branches. The female cone is ova with a small prickle at the tip of each scale. Both make good forage for many small wild animals consuming the seeds found inside the cone. Common to forest and open ranges, it roots well in most soils making in great for erosion control and cover. Used for lumber and can live up to 300 to 600 years. Established in the North and southwestern United States.
Synonym: White Sage | Louisiana Sage
A white-woolly, perennial herb growing 1 to 2 feet tall. The leaves are irregularly toothed or lobed. Flowers are small tight greenish clusters blooming August through September, with fruits that are dry, smooth, broadly cylindrical. Adapted to wide variety of soils, dry, sandy and rocky; quickly reestablishes by creeping rhizomes that form clusters and spread. Provides forage to small and large wildlife. Found from the plains to the Pacific coast.
Prostrate Summer Cypress
A long-lived, perennial semi-evergreen shrub was introduced growing to an average of 3 feet tall. It is simple branched with gray-green to green stems. It has developed a non spreading, fibrous root system with large deep tap root. It is drought tolerant but competes for moisture when limited. Palatable to livestock and wildlife, and used for erosion control and landscaping. It is fire-resistant forage with the capacity to choke out invasive exotic weeds. Established from Montana to New Mexico and west to Nevada and Oregon.
A deciduous spreading shrub that can reach 18 feet in height. It has thin long leaves, and clusters of small creamy white flowers that bloom in the spring. The berries grow in clusters and become red when ripening in the summer. Grows quickly and does well in poor moist soils; best in cool shaded areas, although it will tolerate mostly sunny sites. The extensive root system holds soil to prevent erosion. Palatable to small and large wildlife and livestock; however, uncooked berries are poisonous to humans. Found throughout the western United States.
A deciduous, thicket forming, shrub growing 3 to 9 feet. The bark a deep red turning gray brown with a rough sandpaper like texture and horizontal branches at the base. Foliage is green in summer, and in the fall turns to a reddish purple. The cream-white flowers appear in cymes in the spring producing dull white drupes in July to September. Prefers full sun with an evenly moist soil, and common along stream banks and swamps. The fibrous root system holds soil well for use as a bank cover, and grows faster vertical than horizontal. Common thought most of the United States except in the southeast.
Rocky Mountain Juniper
An evergreen shrub or tree growing 3 to 30 feet tall. The trunk is durable wood and the ark is dark reddish- brown to gray in color, shredding with age. The blue green leaves are long and needlelike with black berry-like fruit. Male and female cones grow on separate trees. The male cones are yellowish-brown, papery, and long. It just has valuable as a food source for birds and small animals as it is as cover. The native grows on rocky, sandy, or clay soils in fields and pastures seldom in woodlands. Found across the Rocky Mountain region.
A deciduous, perennial, shrub growing 12 to 90. The trunk has small gray brown cracks and bark that is fibrous and somewhat shreddy. The yellow green, umbrella shaped, flower blooms June to September and the fruit is an achene. Grows best on medium to coarse-textured and somewhat basic, but may range from moderately acidic to strongly alkaline, and somewhat salt tolerant. Commonly grows on dry, sandy, gravelly or heavy clay. The native prefers full sun and open plains, valley, and mountains. Reproduces from seeds and root sprouts and quickly reestablishes. Common throughout the western United States.
A deciduous, shrub growing from 3 to 13 feet. The leaves are dark green on the upper surface with white silvery hairs and rusty brown spots on the undersurface. The small yellow male and female flowers grow on separate shrubs and blooms in April. The red or yellowish fruits are fleshy and edible but almost tasteless or bitter ripening in July and August. The berries are desired by grouse, black bears, grizzly bears, and rabbits. It prefers partial shade, moist to wet soil and is generally found on rocky, sandy, or gravelly soils. It is able to survive on nutrient poor soils because of its nitrogen fixing ability. Native to the Northern States and west of the Rocky Mountains.
A perennial, evergreen shrub growing 2 to 6 feet. Thread like leaves are deciduous, silver color, and aromatic. Flowers are yellow blooming in August thru September. The small fruit are achenes. Reproduces from small white seeds. The sprawling shrub is used for landscaping as background brush and against wind erosion. It grows in deep sands, dunes, sometimes calcareous soils and is very drought tolerant. Found in desert regions in the southwestern United States.
A deciduous, native shrub growing 3 to 15 feet. It has thin light brown bark and green leaves with a few small teeth at the top. The flowers are white with short petals that bloom April to June. The fruit is sweet with smooth skin, purple-black with a slightly gray-blue waxy, the pulp are used in pies, jams, syrup and wine, ripening from June to August. Reestablishes from seed or vegetative cuttings or by its extensive root system growing in clumps with horizontal and vertical rhizomes. Used for reclamation and is good forage for livestock and wildlife. Pacific coast through the Rocky Mountains and the north Midwest States.
A evergreen shrub growing to 3 feet tall. Leaves are silvery gray-green and scruffy, crushed leaves may have a fishy smell. The inconspicuous green color flower blooms in the spring. Its fruit turns from green to pink to light brown when ripening in the fall; clustered at the branch tips, with two round papery wings enclosing the seed. Prefers alkaline soils of valleys and slopes. Native across most of the Western United States and northern Mexico.
A deciduous shrub growing 6 to 20 feet in height. Flowers are clusters of brownish-yellow, small, with male and female flowers on separate plants. The reddish fruit is a globe-shaped berry commonly used for making jelly. Prefers full sun and is winter hardy and alkaline tolerant with shallow roots that readily sprout however it is only partly drought tolerant. Provides cover and forage for birds and small animals. Occurs along streams, in bottomlands, and on moist hillsides. It is native throughout the western United States and some Northern States.
A perennial evergreen, shrub growing 2 to 5 feet tall. Leaves are lobed with canescent surface with yellow flowers blooming in September. The fruit is a cylindrical, light brown achene with 5- 6 ribs, and lacks a pappus, ripen in Oc- tober and November. Grows on rocky, open sites, river valleys, uplands and floodplains, preferring moist, deep loamy or sandy soils and is moderately salt tolerant. It has deep taproot and is rhizomatous growing 3 times the height of the shrub. Palatable to live- stock and wildlife and provides cover to birds and small animals. Native to Montana, Wyoming, and northern Colorado into central North and South Dakota and northwestern Nebraska.
Synonym: Three-Leaf Sumac
A long-lived, deciduous shrub growing on average 3 to 4 feet. Leaves are di- vided into 3 leaflets that turn rich red- orange in the fall and give off the odor of a skunk, thus the name. Tiny yellow flowers form a dense cluster in the spring. The tart red berries attract birds and tasted like tart lemons. Prefers full sun to partial sun locations with well drained soils. It is drought and winter tolerant. Great for landscaping as a background hedge or screen, and for erosion control. Range extends across the western U.S., and Canada, and south to Mexico. Occurring at elevations from 3,000 to 10,000 feet.
A deciduous shrub or small tree growing up to 20 feet. The stems have a whitish waxy coating with dark green and lustrous leaves that are sharply serrated at the margins. Flowers are green, maturing from the bottom up with drupes that have a flattened- globe shape and are covered with red, sticky hairs; the seeds are yellow and smooth. Prefers moist, fertile, well drained soils, reestablishing by strong rhizomes growing 4 to 7 feet. Found in open woodlands, prairies, on dry rocky hillsides, and in canyons across most of the United States.
A long-lived perennial, deciduous, evergreen, shrub growing 1 to 5 feet. The leaves are spatula shaped and fleshy, with a gray-green surface. The green flowers are clustered with the male and female growing on separate plants blooming April to July. A thin, smooth fruit encloses the greenish-white or reddish seed and has wing on the back or midrib. Establishes from wind or gravity-dispersed the winged seed and vegetatively by sprouting after top-killing disturbances such as fire. Native to dry plains, deserts, and foothills and preferring sandy soils but will grow in alkaline, limestone, gravelly, and dry, heavy, clay soils. It is highly tolerant of drought and fairly tolerant of grazing and fire. Found across the western United States.
A perennial, cool season shrub or small tree growing to an average of 15 feet tall. Leaves have coarse toothed edges with fine soft hairs, turning brown in the fall. The flowers have white petals that grow in small clusters covering the full plant, blooming April to June. The small berries or seeds turn red to brown and then black when ripe. The fruit is sweet, juicy and palatable. It is drought tolerant. Found in arid areas in canyons, rocky areas, and foothills preferring coarse to medium well drained soils and is not salt tolerant. Reproduction is by seed or by sprouting from the root crown. Found across the Western United States.
A deciduous, shrub reaching to 5 feet. Leaves are small, fan shaped, dark green, fuzzy when young; deciduous 3 to 5 lobed with irregularly round toothed, crinkly edges. Small, white to faint pink tubular flowers hang in clusters and bloom in late spring. The fruit is bright orange-red turning to dark red when ripening in late summer. Prefers dry to moist soils in areas of dry mountain slopes, mostly rocky areas, open forest, and in forest openings. Wildlife find the forage moderately palatable and small mammals consume many of the berries. Found across the western part of the United States.
A long-lived half-shrub growing to 4 feet. Low-growing, cool season shrub with numerous annual stems. Leaves have rolled edges and are densely hairy. Flowers are apetalous, and white wooly outside. The fruit is a utricle enclosed by two bracts which are green, pubescent, 2 horned and covered by dense tufts of white hair. It has an extensive fibrous root system and a deep penetrating taproot, helping stabilize soils. Growing well on a wide range of soil textures, although it prefers more basic or limy soils, tolerating moderate to highly saline soil. Easily established thus used for erosion control and disturbed sites. Both nutritious and palatable for livestock and wildlife. Native to the western United States.
A perennial shrub growing 2 to 5 feet tall. Leaves are deciduous, long, and finely toothed toward the tip. Pink or lavender, 5 petal flowers occur in a cluster at the stem tip, bloom from June to August. Has a fleshy red berry when ripe. The branching, rhizomatous, fibrous roots, sometimes forming nearly impenetrable thickets. Adapted to a broad range of moisture conditions, it is easily established thus used for erosion control, disturbed sites and even wetland. Moderately palatable to livestock and wildlife and
small mammal consume the berries. Native across the western United States.
Wyoming Big Sagebrush
A perennial, evergreen shrub growing 1 to 3 feet tall. Leaves are 3 toothed with dense hair on both sides. It also contains oils giving them a distinct odor when crushed. The small and yellow flowers are in composite heads of 3-5 disk. The seeds are sparsely hairy. It has a long taproot and shorter fibrous roots and prefers well-drained shallow soils. Forage is fair palatability for wildlife and great cover for small mammals and birds. Found on lower slopes and plains in the Intermountain west, east of the Continental Divide.