An annual with large orange, salmon or white flowers that are 2 inches wide and blooms in 53 days. Naturalized in the U.S. Best in full sun, dry soils; an excellent cutflower but will close at night, drought-tolerant.
Annual Baby's Breath
A slender annual that produces graceful, open branches with clusters of l/2 inch white flower that blooms in 45 days. Naturalized in eastern North America in sandy places. Best in full to partial sun, dry soils; creates a misty effect in borders, rock gardens; prized for bouquets.
Synonyms: Firewheel | Indian Blanket
An annual with leafy plants that bear daisy-like flowers, to 3 inches across, red tipped with yellow or entirely yellow or red. State flower of Oklahoma. Found across coastal Virginia to Florida, west to New Mexico, north to Colorado, Nebraska and Missouri on open, loose or sandy soil; prairies, fields and woodland openings. Best in full sun, well-drained soils.
Synonyms: Drummond Phlox
An annual that produces showy clusters of flowers in lovely shades of pink, rose, red, purple, and white. Found in south-central Texas; naturalized throughout the southeastern U.S. and Florida on deep, sandy soils in disturbed areas, pastures, hillsides, and woodland openings. Best in full sun, dry soils; excellent for borders and rock gardens.
Synonyms: Common Sunflower |
A robust annual that produces cheery yellow flowers, 2-4 inches across with purplish-brown centers. Has allelopathic properties. Distributed throughout U.S., southern Canada and northern Mexico; abundant in roadsides, waste places and other open sites. Best in full sun, dry
soils; highly adaptable, produces seeds that attracts seed-eaters.
Synonyms: Oregon Sunflower | Breadroot
A long-lived, tap-rooted perennial with large, bright yellow flowers are on individual stems but may be numerous, sunflower-like; blooms May to June. Found across B.C. to CA east of the Cascades, east to Alberta, ND, SD and CO, south to northern AZ on open hillsides and flats, fairly deep soil, valleys and foothills up to 9000 ft. elevation, typically with big sagebrush. Best in full sun, dry, well-drained, gravelly soils.
Synonyms: Succulent Lupine
An annual that has succulent stems and palmately compound leaves; the bluish to purple flowers have a yellow dot on the banner. Found in western CA, northern Baja peninsula; abundant along roadsides and disturbed areas, establishes quickly in native coastal scrub areas that have burned. Best in full sun, dry soils, drought tolerant; attracts hummingbirds.
An annual with delicate, trailing plant with masses of bright, blue flowers, 1-2 inches across, with white centers. Found in California; moist flats and slopes below 2,500 ft. elev., foothills, grasslands, coastal sage scrub, chaparral. Best in partial sun to shade, moist soils; excellent for shady borders.
Synonyms: Goldentuft | Madwort |
Gold-dust | Aurinia saxatilis
A mat-forming perennial with woody roots and bright yellow flowers in clusters; blooms from mid-April to early June. Found on rocky, stony slopes, ledges, and cliffs, usually on limestone. Plants form large, spreading mounds, excellent for the front of borders and rock gardens.
Performs best in lean, very well-drained soil, full sun.
Synonyms: Bee Balm | Horsemint
A perennial with purple clusters of flowers appear July thru August. Rhizomatous, can be aggressive. Found in North America, east of the Rockies; floodplains, shorelines and open woodlands, moist to mesic prairies. Best in full to partial sun; moderately dry to moist, but not wet soils, tolerates sandy, clay or loam soils. Moist rich soils are best.
A slender annual with flowers to l inch across, pale violet with throats marked by paired purple spots surrounding a yellow or orange tube, fragrant. Found in California on open grassy plains and slopes, below 2,000 ft. Best in full sun, dry soils.
Synonyms: Hairy Coneflower
An annual, biennial or short-lived perennial leafy plant with bright yellow daisy-like flowers with dark, done- shaped centers. Blooms from late June through September. Native to the Midwest and Lake states, naturalized in the east. Disturbed prairies, roadsides and waste places. Best in full to partial sun, various soils; quite adaptable and somewhat aggressive.
A perennial with all leaves basal; bell- shaped flowers are up to 3 inches wide, with long spurs, in blue, white, yellow, lavender or red. State flower of Colorado. Found in the Rocky Mountains along with sagebrush, pinyon-juniper, mountain brush, aspen, Douglas fir-White fir, aspen-forb, spruce-fir and alpine communities at 5,000-ll,000 feet elevation. Best in full sun to shady conditions, moist soils; provide filtered shade in sunny, hot climates.
Synonyms: Linum perenne - European
species | Linum lewisii - native U.S. Appar
A perennial, produces masses of 5-petalled, sky-blue flowers. Blooms in mid-May through June. Found across parts of the Western US prairies and calcareous rocky banks, sagebrush, pinyon-juniper, mountain brush, mixed desert scrub, aspen and spruce-fir communities, dry slopes and ridges. Best in full sun, dry and well-drained soils; drought resistant; does not tolerate combination of heat and humidity.
Synonyms: Simplers Joy
A clump-forming perennial with stiff, upright stems with square hairy stems; lance-shaped, toothed leaves to 6 inches long; small purple-blue flowers are found on thin spikes, blooming from top to bottom; blooms from July to September. Found across British Columbia to Nova Scotia, south to CA, AZ and FL; wet meadows, wet river bottoms, stream banks, fields and waste areas. Best in full sun, moderate to wet soils; self sows readily.
Synonyms: California Blue-Eyed Grass
A perennial and a member of the Iris family but resembling a tuft of bluish-green grass; the violet-blue clusters of flowers are borne well above the foliage, 3/4-1 inch wide. Blooms late May through June and again in September. Found in coastal California, open grassy places below 3000 feet elev. Best in full sun, moist soils; plant in groups for best effect and do not allow soil to dry out.
Synonyms: Butterflyweed | Pleurisy
Root | Tuberroot
Perennial with deep, tuberous roots. Flowers are large clusters, orange to reddish, blooms from mid-June to mid-July. Attracts butterflies. May be poisonous to livestock. Adapted to many parts of the US. Usually in dry open soils of prairies, roadsides and waste places, upland woods. Best in full sun, well-drained sandy or gravelly soils; will endure drought well.
An annual, compact plant producing a profusion of dark blue, bell-shaped flowers. Found across southern California in the Colorado and Mojave deserts. Best in full sun, dry soils, grows best in sandy, well-drained, infertile soils.
An annual to perennial that forms a tuft of basal, blue-green, finely divided leaves; flowers deep orange to pale yellow, blooms in 55 days. This is the state flower of California. Found across Washington to California; common in grassy and open places up to 6,500 feet. Very adaptable to full sun, dry to moist soils, prefers well-drained poor soils.
An annual that produces an abundance of flowers with dark cones and reflexed petals, petals are yellow or yellow with a reddish base. Found across KS to TX, southeast to GA; roadsides, streambanks, fields, and prairies. Prefers full sun, various soils; drought-tolerant; use in mixes, beds, and a good cutflower.
Common Evening Primrose
A biennial to perennial with tall flowering stalks arise from leafy basal rosettes, yellow flowers open in the evening and are 2-3 inches wide. Naturalized in cooler northern areas of the U.S. Best in full sun, moderate to dry soils; reseeds readily.
Synonyms: Flanders Poppy |
A slender annual that produces large blossoms of pink, red, or white, on slender stalks. This may be poisonous to livestock. Naturalized in the U.S. and found here in open or shaded sites in sandy or gravelly soils, roadsides, cultivated ground, waste places. Best in full to partial
sun, dry soils; good for borders or rock gardens.
Synonyms: Bachelors Button | Bluebottle
A winter annual with foliage with cottony hairs, bluish-green; flowers are fringed, bright blue, l in. wide, blooms in 60 days. Common in cultivated ground; established in disturbed sites and roadsides in the U.S. Best in full to partial sun, dry soils; drought-resistant and aggressive.
An annual with tall, airy plants that bear finely divided leaves and showy, 4-inch flowers in white, pink or purple. Blooms in late summer and early autumn. Sometimes escapes from garden, becoming established along roadsides and waste places. Best in full to partial sun, dry, sandy soils, avoid rich soils; excellent cutflower, good for backgrounds in
flower beds, fairly aggressive, self-sows easily, seeds attract birds.
Synonyms: Wild Thyme
A spreading perennial that forms thick mats with clusters of lavender flowers, very fragrant, not as strong as the garden thyme (T. vulgaris). Blooms from June through August. Found across northwest Europe on dry slopes, grasslands, and dunes. Best in full to partial sun, dry soils; an excellent ground cover or lawn substitute,
flowers attract bees; has a wide variety of uses as an herb for cooking, teas, medicines, etc.
A bushy perennial, rhizomatous; stems and leaves covered with grey hairs, leaves resemble small maple leaves; red to orange flowers appear spring and early summer, resemble miniature hollyhock flowers. Blooms late June through August. Native to cold deserts of the Southwest, UT, NV, AZ, CA and Mexico. Requires full sun, prefers well-drained, sandy
soils, very drought-tolerant; avoid overwatering as it can become aggressive.
Synonyms: Wild Marigold
An annual or perennial; daisy-like flowers are single and yellow, 1-2 inches across; blooms for most of the season. poisonous to livestock (sheep, not cows). Found across UT to southern CA, TX and northern Mexico. Found in native low deserts such as the eastern Mojave, sandy or rocky soils, plains and mesas. Very drought-tolerant. Grows best in full
sun and well-drained soils outside of desert areas, does not tolerate combination of heat and humidity. Grow as an annual outside of desert areas.
Synonyms: Dense Gayfeather | Blazingstar
A perennial with slender, unbranched plant with tall spike of purple flowers; blooms from July to mid August. Found across Long Island to Michigan, south to Florida and Louisiana; moist areas, meadows, borders of marshes, savannas, damp slopes, wet-mesic prairies, in neutral to slightly acid soil. Best in full to partial sun, moist to mesic soils; tolerates combination of heat and humidity; an excellent cutflower.
Synonyms: European Crowfoot |
A perennial, all leaves basal; drooping bell-shaped flowers with strongly hooked spurs, in white, red, violet or blue. Blooms from May to mid-June. Found in mountain pastures, rocky places, shady slopes and woods. Best in full sun to shady conditions, prefers sandy, well-drained soils, moderate water; attracts hummingbirds.
Dwarf Evening Primrose
Synonyms: O. macrocarpa | Missouri
A tap-rooted perennial with low plants bearing 3-5 inch, yellow flowers. Blooms from mid-June through August, day-blooming. Found across Missouri and Kansas, south to Texas; dry, thin, rocky, exposed calcareous soils on prairies, cliffs, hillsides, slopes. Best in full to partial sun,
dry soils, prefers a soil with good drainage; does not tolerate combination of heat and humidity.
Synonyms: Firecracker Penstemon
A short to long-lived, perennial withseveral red flowers growing in stalks or clusters. Each flower has the typical 5-lobed corolla and blooms between May to July. Growing upwards of 2 feet tall. It prefers well-drained soils and is cold and drought tolerant. Mainly planted for its beauty and erosion control. Found on dry slopes in the southwest from Colorado to California.
Synonyms: Cutleaf Daisy
A perennial with leaves that are deeply pinnately lobed; flowers are yellow, daisy-like, to 1 inch across. Found across KS to CO, south to LA and northern Mexico; open, dry, calcareous soil. Best in full sun, dry locations; drought tolerant but supplemental watering may extend the flowering period.
A perennial with pink, purple or mauve flowers growing in clusters on the top of the reddish stem; blooming July to September. The fruit are narrow seed pods that split and release numerous tiny white seed heads. It has and unpleasant odor, is slightly hairly. It grows from 3 to 7 feet. Prefers full sun to partial shade, moist to dry, in sandy soil and thrives in burned areas and open wooded areas. Found throughout most of the United States.
An annual with cup-shaped, white blossoms, 1-2 inches across with light purple veins and a purple spot at the edge of each petal lobe. Found in California on mesic to moist slopes and flats, below 7,500 ft. elev., west of the Sierra Nevadas. Best in partial sun to shade, mesic to moist soils; excellent for shady borders.
Synonyms: Aspen Daisy
A perennial, 8-24 inches tall; produces masses of aster-like, lavender flowers with yellow centers. Blooms mid-June to mid-July. Found across Alberta and British Columbia, south to Montana, New Mexico, and Arizona; open, wooded areas. Best in full to partial sun, dry to moist soils, prefers well-drained soil that is not too rich; attracts butterflies.
An annual or biennial, depending on climate produces masses of minia- ture, sky-blue blossoms with white, yellow or pink centers. Blooms from mid-April to June. Found on rocky places, mountain pastures, damp meadows, woods. Naturalized in the U.S. in moist, shaded places. Best in partial sun to shade, moist soils; perfect for borders, rock gardens, and for dainty bouquets.
Synonyms: Marvel-of-Peru |
A tender perennial that produces handsome, trumpet-shaped flowers in shades of red, pink, yellow and white, often striped or mottled. Flowers open in late afternoon. Blooms late summer through autumn. Found in tropical America, occasionally escaping from cultivation and establishing in waste places and roadsides. Best in full sun, dry to moist soils; attracts birds and butterflies.
A biennial with flowers on tall stalks arising from clump of basal leaves, flowers are tubular, to 3 inches long, purple or cream colored with spots inside. Blooms in June. Found on open woods and heaths in mountains. Best in partial sun to shade, moist soil; prefers porous but rich, moist soils; may reflower if cut back; dried leaves are the principal
source of the drug, digitalis. Flowers may attract hummingbirds.
Synonyms: Fernleaf Yarrow
A perennial with leaves doubly pinnatifid, like fern leaves, woolly hairy; flowers dull yellow, in dense, flat-topped clusters up to 5 inches across; plants very aromatic. Blooms from mid-June through August. Naturalized throughout the United States. Prefers sunny locations and dry soil; tolerant to combination of heat and humidity, drought tolerant; can be very aggressive.
A perennial with yellow, pea-like flower, growing on 2 foot stalks; blooming in May and August. The seed pods are curved, a blue green color, and covered with hair to promote regermination and also spreads by rhizomes. The plants grow in colonies and spread from underground roots. Prefers moist well-drained garden soils thus found in the foothills along streams and ponds.
A native perennial that has a taproot, non-rhizomatous; leaves resemble those of gooseberries, produces an abundance of coral orange flowers, blooms from June to August. Distrib- uted across AZ, NM and CA, north to WA and ID; found on well drained slopes, valleys to foothills, elevation 3000 to 6000 feet. Best in full sun, very drought-tolerant.
A perennial with flowers that have drooping yellow petals and gray- brown, columnar disks. Blooms in July and August. From Ontario to GA, west to MN and OK; dry to wet prairies and dry woods. Best in full to partial sun; dry to moist soils; good for back of the border mixes.
A native perennial that has very erect, leafy stems; produces dense spikes of purple flowers from early July through mid-August. Found across MA and MT, south to northern Mexico; common in pastures, prairies, thickets, roadsides, and waste places. Best in full sun, extremely drought tolerant, prefers dry sandy soils.
Synonyms: Arctic Poppy
A short-lived perennial that produces large, white, orange or yellow flowers on slender stalks, arising from clumps of basal leaves. Blooms in late spring and early summer. Found across arctic regions of North America, south to Colorado. Best in full sun, dry to moist soils; at home in cool climates, does not tolerate combination of heat and humidity, does not transplant well.
Synonyms: Illinois Tick Clover | Prairie
Mimosa | False Sensitive Plant
A warm-season perennial that has doubly compound leaves which create a fernlike appearance; flowers are creamy white and spherical, blooms mid-late summer. Common throughout tallgrass prairie and great plains, usually in disturbed sites, pastures, rocky open wooded slopes, ravines, streambanks, roadsides, waste places. Prefers full sun, dry to moist soils; also used for revegetation and prairie restoration.
Synonyms: Common Paintbrush
A perennial with hairy leaves, linear; bracts and flowers tipped with scarlet. Found across Oregon and California, east to Wyoming and New Mexico; mostly sagebrush, Pinyon-Juniper, creosote bush, and blackbrush communities. Best in full sun, dry soils; may benefit when planted with native grasses or sagebrush since it is thought to be partly parasitic.
Synonyms: Horned Violet
An annual to perennial, produces tiny, Pansy-shaped flowers in purple and gold. Blooms all summer, strongest in spring and fall in hot climates. Best in full to partial sun, prefers moist soils; tolerates full sun best in cool summer areas, will not tolerate combination of heat and humidity; reseeds easily.
A perennial with showy, bright yellow flowers are 2.5 inches wide; blooms in June through July. Found across Florida to Louisiana, north to Vermont, southern Ontario, Michigan, Illinois and Missouri; dry, sandy or gravelly soils, open prairies and roadsides. Best in full to partial sun, dry to moderately moist soils; fairly drought tolerant and tolerates a wide range of pH and the combination of heat and humidity.
Synonyms: Prairie Shoestrings |
A shrub-like perennial with compound leaves with a silvery pubescence, purple flower occur in tight spikes at the ends of the branches in late
June-July. Attracts butterflies. Found across Manitoba, south to LA and NM. Prairies, open woods, roadsides. Prefers full sun, mesic to dry soils, adapted to sandy or gravelly soil, can thrive in poor soil and is very drought tolerant, deeply tap-rooted. A nitrogen fixer.
A mat-forming perennial, flowers are dark pink, with serrated petals. Blooms from mid-May to July. Best in full sun to light shade, dry to moist soils; prefers gritty, alkaline soil; does not tolerate combination of heat and humidity; excellent for borders, rock gardens, fragrant gardens; can be susceptible to crown rot.
A tall perennial sunflower with yellow flowers to 3 inches across, clustered leaves are grayish-green and rough to the touch, often folded and curving downward. Rhizomatous and aggressive. Blooms late August to October. Naturally dominant plant of the prairies, across southern Canada, south to NC, KY and TX. Best in full to partial sun, dry to moist soils;
important wildlife plant, deer forage on leaves and birds eat the seeds.
A perennial native with blue flowers, tip of keel long and slender. Leaves in distinctive digitate clusters. Blooms June-July. Distributed across OR and CA, east to CO, NM, SD. Dry, rocky places, pine forests to subalpine ridges, generally 5000- 11,000 feet elevation. Best on dry, well-draining soils, full to partial sun, avoid overwatering.
A bushy annual, has leaves divided into needle-like divisions, 1-inch flowers in dense heads, white to pale lilac. Found across California, open woods and sandy places, below 3,500 ft. elev., coastal strand and scrub, pine forests. Prefers full sun and light, sandy soils; can sow in the fall in spring elsewhere after soil warms up.
A perennial with apricot-orange flowers with gray-green leaves and stems. Blooms May to August, and grows upright, vase-like shrub, to 24 high and across. Prefers full sun, can grow in any well-drained soil. Very drought tolerant. It has been found to be poisonous to cattle. Established in desert plains and the high desert, rocky and disturbed areas; native to the Western US.
Narrow-Leaf Purple Coneflower
Synonyms: Black Sampson |
E. pallida var. angustifolia
A perennial, leaves narrow (linear- lanceolate), flowers are violet, with shorter petals than E. pallida or E. purpurea. Produces a long taproot. Blooms in mid June to late July. Found across MN to Saskatchewan, south to OK, TX; dry upland prairies and barrens. Best in full sun, dry
well-draining soils; perfect for Shortgrass Prairie mixes and xeriscaping.
Synonyms: Prairie Penstemon
A glabrous and glaucous native perennial, stems tend to be bent at the base; produces blue flowers from May to early June. Found across short-grass prairie, SD and MT, south to NM. Best in full sun, drought tolerant, great for shorter native mixes.
New England Aster
A perennial that has leafy stems, leaves hairy; a robust, autumn- blooming aster with thick clusters of pink to dark purple flowers with yellow centers; blooms from mid-August to mid-October. Found across Canada; Vermont to Alabama, west to North Dakota, Wyoming and New Mexico on moist to mesic sandy areas, moist meadows, stream banks, roadsides, open woods and fields. Best in full sun, tolerates partial shade; moist to mesic soils.
Nodding Pink Onion
Synonyms: Wild Onion | Ladys Leek
A perennial with leaves numerous and linear; umbels many flowered, nodding, pink to white. Blooms July through August. Native from NY to SC, west to B.C. and CA. Rocky slopes, dry meadows, hillsides and woodlands. Prefers full sun to light shade, well-draining soils; great for the garden or naturalized in a meadow. Very drought tolerant once established.
A perennial with purple bell shaped flowers that hang individually along the stalk, growing 1 to 3 feet. The flowers are hermaphrodite and blooms July to August. The plant prefers full sun in deep well- drained, but moist sandy, loamy, and clay soils. Found across most of the western half of the US.
Pale Evening Primrose
A rhizomatous perennial with large white flowers 4 inches across. Blooms late June to September. Found across WA to SD, south to NV, AZ, NM and TX. Desert shrub, pinyon/juniper, sagebrush, mountain brush, and ponderosa pine communities; up to 7,500 ft. elev. Best in full sun, dry soils. Excellent for xeriscape mixes, erosion control on slopes.
Pale Purple Coneflower
Synonyms: Rudbeckia pallida
A perennial, has long reflexed lavender petals with purplish brown disk; strongly taprooted, leaves are usually more narrow than E. purpurea. Blooms in mid-July to mid-August. Found in midwest U.S. south to LA, AL, GA, dry to mesic prairies and open savannas. Best in full sun to light shade, dry to moderate soils best, attracts birds and butterflies, a good cutflower. Suitable for tallgrass prairie plantings.
A perennial, has grayish-green foliage, long flower stalks produce many light pink flowers; blooms early June through mid July. Found across CA, east to UT and AZ; open, rocky areas. Best in full sun, prefers sandy, gravelly soils; drought-tolerant; does not tolerate combination of heat and humidity. Best in southwest gardens.
An annual legume bright yellow with 5 unequal petals flowers growing to 1 to 4 feet tall. Blooms in August and July. Prefers full sun, well-draining sandy soils in old fields, pastures and open woodlands. Flat seeds are an important food source for many game and song birds and part of the reestablishing processes. Found across most of the United States.
A perennial with leafy plants that bear 4 inch, daisy-like flowers, in shades of yellow, bronze and burgundy, often banded. Blooms from June through August. Found across North Dakota to Colorado, west to Oregon and south- west Canada; pinyon-juniper, ponder- osa pine, aspen, lodgepole pine, and spruce-fir communities, usually below 8,500 feet elevation. Best in full sun; prefers light, well- drained, infertile soils; withstands heat and drought.
Synonyms: Sundial Lupine | Wild Lupine
A perennial, forms clumps of basal leaves with leaflets in digitate clusters, flowers in spikes, mostly blue but sometimes pink or white. Blooms from mid-May through June. Distributed from Maine to Florida, dry woods, clearings and openings. Best in full sun, dry to moist soils; thrives in well-drained soil, do not transplant. Attracts hummingbirds.
Synonyms: Tickseed | Calliopsis tinctoria
A slender annual, produces masses of flowers, ranging in color from deep red and bronze to bright yellow with red centers. Dwarf varieties grow 12-18 inches tall. Found across Minnesota and British Columbia, south to Louisiana and New Mexico; common garden escape elsewhere; seasonally damp, disturbed sites, especially
roadside ditches and low, sandy ground. Best in full to partial sun, dry to moist, well-drained soils; attracts seedeaters.
Synonyms: Tahoka Daisy | Tansyleaf
Aster | Aster tanacetifolius
A winter annual, compact, bushy plants with tansy-like foliage. The 2-inch flow- ers are lavender with yellow centers. Blooms mid-summer through autumn. Found across Alberta to South Dakota, south to north-central Mexico; some- what aggressive, colonizing disturbed sandy and silty soils, plains and hill-sides. Best in full to partial sun, dry soils; a good choice for sandy soils.
Synonyms: Mexican Hat | Rudbeckia
columnifera | Ratibida columnaris
A biennial to perennial, flowers with drooping yellow or bronze ray flowers and upright, brownish center. Blooms from July through August. Mexican Hat is mostly red with a little yellow. Dwarf Red is solid red. Found from Alberta to Mexico, east to Manitoba, Minnesota, Illinois,
Missouri, Arkansas and Texas; dry plains, prairies and ravines. Best in full sun; dry, well-drained soils, quite drought-tolerant.
Synonyms: Cow Slobbers
An erect, branching perennial with grass-like leaves to 18 inches long; blue-purple three-petaled flowers in terminal clusters, flowering June to July; each flower lasts one day and will close by noon on sunny days; Found across Minnesota to Louisiana and Arizona; prairies in sandy or rocky soil; to 8000 ft. elevation. Best in sun to
partial shade, dry to moderate moisture.
his sticky plant can be either Annual, Biennial, Perennial growing upward of 3 feet. Its white flower blooms up to 5 inches across with yellow balls of stamens in the center. The seed pods are 6 to 9 inches tall with many prickles helping the seeds reestablish in the ground. Prefers sandy soils and found in flood plains, disturbed areas, and roadsides. It can
be poisonous to cattle but usually let uneaten due to its spins.
Synonyms: Hedgehog Coneflower
A perennial, produces large, rose-purple flowers, up to 6 inches across, with dome-shaped centers. A bushy plant, blooming from late June through August. Distributed across Ohio to Iowa, south to Louisiana and Georgia; dry, open woods and rocky prairies. Best in full sun to light shade, tolerates various soil types but does best in moderately moist but well-
drained soil which is rich in humus; tolerate combination of heat and humidity. A good cutflower, attracts butterflies, seeds attract birds.
Purple Prairie Clover
Synonyms: Dalea purpurea
A perennial, legume with pinnately compound leaves, flowers in dense spikes, rose to dark purple. Has a stout taproot. Blooms from July to
early August. Found across Indiana to Saskatchewan, south to Texas, Colorado and New Mexico; rocky plains and hillsides, open wooded areas, stream valleys and roadsides. Best in full sun, dry to mesic well-drained soils; palatable to wildlife.
A perennial, produces dense clusters of dark gold flowers, blooms late August through October. Does not spread by rhizomes like so many
other goldenrods. Found across MA to Saskatchewan, south to GA, LA, and TX; dry to mesic prairies, open woodlands, neutral soil. Best in full sun, prefers moderate to dry soil; use for late season color, back of border, mixes, meadows; great paired with New England Aster; attracts birds and butterflies, a good cutflower.
Synonyms: Consolida ambigua
An annual, spikes of flowers arising from clump of basal leaves, flowers are pink, blue, purple or white. Found on cultivated ground and roadsides. Best in full to partial sun, moist to dry soils, avoid acid soils; attracts hummingbirds.
Rocket Mountain Penstemon
A perennial that produces spikes of showy, blue or blue-violet flowers, l-inch long. Blooms from June through July. Found across southern Wyoming and Utah, south to nortern New Mexico and northeast Arizona; pinyon-pine, mountain brush, sage- brush and aspen-conifer. Best in full to partial sun, dry soils; excellent for the rock garden, drought-tolerant, attracts hummingbirds.
Rocky Mountain Beeplant
Synonyms: Spiderplant | Stinking Clover
An annual that has pink to lavender flowers with 4 sepals and 4 petals, resembling a small garden spiderplant (C. spinosa); leaves are compound with 3 elliptical leaflets. A good nectar plant - attracts bees. Wide ranging, from California and eastern WA, east to the Great Plains; disturbed areas along roadsides, on stream traces and other pioneer situations. Best in full sun, dry to moderate soil moisture.
A perennial that forms clumps of basal leaves with leaflets in digitate clusters, flowers are in spikes, red, blue or pink. Blooms late May to June. Found from California to British Columbia. Best in full sun, dry to moist soils; attracts humming-birds.
Synonyms: Scarlet Penstemon
A glabrous perennial, stems glaucous (with whitish cast), scarlet red flowers occur along a long flowering stem. Blooms late June through late August. Distributed throughout southwestern U.S. (UT, AZ, NM, TX); canyonsides, dry slopes, Ponderosa pine woodlands. Best in full sun, dry soils; excellent for xeriscape mixes, attracts hummingbirds.
An annual that produces masses of 5-petalled, brilliant red flowers; blooming in April to September. Best in full sun, dry to moist, well-drained soils. Seedlings are not cold tolerant, usually dying with the first frost. The flower is heat and drought tolerant.
Synonyms: Gilia aggregata | Skyrocket
A biennial with flowers usually scarlet but pinkish to white colors, trumpet-shaped and pollinated by hawk-moths and hummingbirds; arises from a narrow taproot. Blooms from mid-July to September. Found across B.C. to MT, south to CA and NM, common in the mountains, foothills, sagebrush steppes and mesas. Also associated with dry ground on the open plains. Best in full sun, dry soils; good for xeriscaping.
Synonyms: Cowboys Delight | Prairie
Mallow | Red False Mallow | Malva coccinea
A low, spreading perennial with deep woody taproot; saucer-shaped flowers are orange to red and in small terminal clusters; blooms May to August. Found across Manitoba south to Texas and Arizona; primarily a species of the Great Plains; semi-deserts, foothills, grasslands and prairies. Best in full sun, very drought- and grazing-tolerant, leaves falling during prolonged drought; tolerant of poor soils, hot temperatures.
Synonyms: Chrysanthemum X superbum
A perennial, similar to Ox-Eye Daisy, but flowers are generally larger and not as aggressive. Blooms from mid-May to early August. Best in full to partial sun, moist to moderately dry soils but does best in rich, well-drained soils; deadhead to extend bloom, an excellent cutflower, attracts butterflies.
Showy Evening Primrose
An annual to perennial, has running rhizomes; day flowering, white to pink flowers are 2-3 inches wide. Blooms March to July. Distributed Kansas to Texas; various soils in prairies, open woodlands, ungrazed pastures and plains. Best in full to partial sun, dry or moist soils; rhizomatous, can form large patches and be quite invasive; does not tolerate combination of heat and humidity.
Synonym: Viguera multiflora
A long-lived, native perennial with flowers of golden yellow. Often growing in small bushy clumps, this bright sunflower is abundant in summer and fall mountain meadows, frequently brightening many acres; blooms July to September. Its long, narrow leaves are almost an olive drab. Flowers start with a green central disk and tiny green rays, gradually changing to golden disks and golden-yellow rays. Prefers full sun to partial shade in rich to well-drained soils. Common and widely distributed in the Intermountain West.
Synonyms: Asclepias giffordii
A perennial, coarser than A. tuberosa, plants densely white tomentose, large pink clusters of flowers appearing from June to August. Pods are 3.5-4.5 inches long and are covered with white hairs. Rhizomatous, may be aggressive. Found from Manitoba to MN, TX, west to B.C. and CA. Common along roadsides, fields, streamsides and other moist sites. Best
in full sun, moderate to moist sites, considered a wetland species; excellent for butterflies, can be aggressive.
Synonyms: Erysimum hieraciifolium
A biennial or perennial, slender plants with fragrant, bright orange flowers, similar to stock. Blooms in late April to early June. Best in full sun, moderately dry to moist soils; use in fragrant gardens and to attract butterflies.
ynonyms: Mountain Lupine
A hardy perennial with blue flowers, sometimes white or pink; blooms from March to June. Flowers may turn muddy yellow at lower elevations. The plant has silvery hairy foliage, and leaves form distinctive digitate clusters. Poisonous to livestock. Prominent in meadows, roadsides, wooded areas and found from 6000-10,500 feet elevation. Best in sunny to shady areas; prefers drier soils; attracts hummingbirds. Native primarily in California and Oregon.
A long-lived, evergreen, perennial forb growing 2 to 25 inches. The flowers are closely packed in head- like to elongate spikes 3 to 8 inches long, the lower ones male and the upper ones female, with no petals and about 12 stamens. The purple thumb-sized seed head blooms May to July. Prefers full to partial sun, well-drained soils and infertile to disturbed soils. Is cold and drought tolerance. Distributed primarily throughout the West and Northeast.
ynonyms: Smooth Blue Aster
A perennial, has smooth, bluish- green foliage, leafy branches; flowers are purple with yellow centers; blooms from mid-August to early October. Found across Canada; Yukon to NE Oregon and New Mexico, east to Maine and Georgia; in open, dry to moist sites such as borders of woodlands, prairies. Prefers full sun, dry to moist soils, drought tolerant.
A mat-forming perennial, foliage white woolly, bluish-green; white flowers with notched petals, about l inch wide. Blooms from May through June. Best in full sun, dry to mesic soils that are well-draining; fairly aggressive, spreads rapidly, good ground cover.
A slender annual, has numerous tiny snapdragon-like flowers, in shades of pink, yellow, red, purple and violet with yellow patches in the throats and long, pointed spurs; blooms in 50 days. Naturalized in the northeastern U.S. Best in full to partial sun and dry soils.
Sulfer Flower Buckwheat
A native, low-growing woody
perennial with flower stems 3 to 16 inches tall that are topped by clusters of tiny sulfur-yellow flower heads. Flowers range from yellow to orange or reddish. Blooms June to August. Commonly found on hot dry sunny exposures on rocky slopes and ridges throughout the west. Sulfur flower buckwheat plants withstand sun, heat, drought, and wind, making them ideal plants for dry sunny slopes. It is found in dry, open and often rocky places. It is found in California to western Canada and also Colorado and New Mexico.
Synonym: Marsh Milkweed | Rose
Milkweed | Silkweed
An erect, clump-forming perennial with milky sap, stems are branching, opposite leaves bend upward on either side of the prominent midrib, flowers are small, fragrant, pink to mauve, and in tight clusters at the stem ends, blooming July to September. Distributed from Nova Scotia to Florida, west to Utah; swamps, wet meadows and prairies, poorly drained sites. Best in full sun, moderate to wet soils.
Synonyms: Alyssum maritimum
A tender perennial, produces fragrant masses of white, pink or purple flowers, plants tend to be spreading. Blooms quickly. Found on rocky and sandy places, waste places, roadsides. Excellent for fragrant, butterfly and old-fashioned gardens; highly adaptable, blooms all year round in warm climates. Best in full to partial sun, dry to moist soils.
Sweet Williams Pinks
An annual to short-lived perennial, produces clusters of flowers with toothed petals, in white, pink, red, purple, or violet, often bi-colored. Sweet-scented. Blooms from mid-May to mid-July. Naturalized in the U.S. Best in full sun, dry to moist soils, prefers rich, moist and well-draining soil; does not tolerate combination of heat and humidity; good for fragrant
gardens, cut-flowers, attracts butterflies.
A winter annual or biennial, leaves are basal with leaflets in digitate clusters; flowers in spikes, blue with white markings; has a deep taproot. The state flower of Texas. Blooms late July thru September. Found in Texas, frequent in dry sandy or gravelly soils, plains, brushlands, flats, hillsides and along roadsides. Best in full to partial sun, dry to
moist soils, requires moisture to flower.
Synonyms: Prairie Blazingstar, Prairie
Gayfeather, Kansas Gayfeather
A hardy perennial, has linear leaves, spikes of purple flowers which bloom from the top down; blooms July to mid-August. Found across IN to SD, south to FL, LA and TX; moist to dry prairies. Best in full sun, prefers moderate to moist soils but can be drought resistant, tolerant of heat and humidity; good for borders, meadows - may need staking, attracts birds and butterflies, a good cutflower.
A perennial, clump-forming; has broad, bell-shaped flowers, 1-2 inches wide, in white or violet. Blooms from late June through July. Best in sun to shade, dry to moist soils, excellent for the rock garden and border edgings.
A native perennial with blue, 1 trumpet flowers on densely packed spikes. The flower blooms May to June. It requires full sun, dry conditions, and well-drained soil. Excellent in rock gardens, cutting gardens, front of bed or containers. Native to Utah, Idaho and Wyoming.
Synonyms: Tall Larkspur | Tall
Mountain Larkspur | Duncecap Larkspur
An upright perennial, 3-6 feet tall, upper stems are sticky/glandular; small flowers are pale blue to purple, spurred, and numerous in tall, dense clusters; leaves are palmately divided; flowers June to August. Found across the western U.S. Best in partial sun, moist soils, considered an invasive weed in some areas; poisonous to livestock.
A perennial native growing about 12 inches tall and is conspicuous do to the upper half being covered with numerous bright yellow flowers. Flowers have four petals and are about 3 to 4 of an inch wide. It begins to bloom in April. Prefers sunny and dry conditions. The species can be found from southern Canada to New Mexico and through many of our eastern states.
Synonyms: Achillea millefolium var.
occidentalis | A. millefolium var. lanulosa
A perennial with leaves finely divided with gray woolly hairs; flowers are white, in dense, flat-topped cluster; plants are aromatic. Quite drought tolerant. Blooms from June through July. Native from Quebec to Yukon, south to OK, CA and Mexico on dry, open rocky places. Prefers full sun; well-draining soils. Very drought tolerant; will be aggressive in moister soils, spreads by rhizomes.
White Prairie Clover
A native perennial plant with flowers that are about 1/4 across, with 5 petals and 5 white stamens. The flowers often have a pleasant fragrance. It blooms June to August. It is drought tolerant. Grows well in full sun and prefers loamy, clay, sand, or gravel soils. Common in dry black soil prairies, sand prairies, savannas, openings in upland forests, and limestone glades. Found mainly east of the Rocky Mountains and West of the Appellation Mountains.
White Upland Aster
Synonyms: Stiff White Aster, Stiff Aster Solidago ptarmicoides
A perennial, clump-forming; produces masses of white flowers; blooms from August to late September. Found across western Quebec and Vermont, south to Georgia, west to Saskatchewan, South Dakota, Colorado and Arkansas; found in open, drying prairies, limestone bluffs, sandy sites, gravelly glacial hills and dunes. Best in sunny locations and dry soils.
A perennial with leaves finely divided, flowers are white, in dense, flat-topped clusters; plants very aromatic. Quite drought tolerant. Blooms from mid- June through August. Naturalized throughout the U.S., usually in fields and roadsides. Prefers full sun, dry to moist soils; very aggressive with spreading rhizomes, difficult to eradicate. Can be mowed to form a groundcover, good for soil erosion, withstands combination of heat and humidity.
Wild Blue Iris
Synonyms: Western Blue Flag | Rocky Mountain Iris A hardy rhizomatous perennial with sword-like leaves are bluish-green, blue to pale lilac flowers resemble common garden Iris but are smaller. Blooms April-June; usually flowers the 3rd year. Persists in moist meadows and streambanks from low valleys to 9,000 ft. elev.; SD to BC, south to CA, AZ, and Mexico. Prefers full sun, moist soils; great for the rock garden, spreads readily.
A native perennial covered with delicate 1.5 inch rosy-lavender to soft pink flowers. Blooms April to June. Used in open woodlands, perfect for the border of a shade garden, or naturalized in sweeps at the base of large trees. Wild Geranium prefers moist, humus-rich, well-drained soil and high open shade and accepts sunny conditions with moisture but will go dormant in drought conditions. Occurs in rich or rocky open woods from the Midwest to the Eastern part of the United States.