Arkansas Valley
SEED
Supplying the highest quality seed with integrity, while building long lasting customer relationships since 1945.

Reclamation & Native Grass Species

reclamation and native seed
Arkansas Valley Seed is a provider of seed to government agencies, municipalities, landscapers and more for a wide range of reclamation projects including forest fire recovery, range management, mining, roadside construction and residential landscaping. With a wide variety of warm- and cool-season grasses, wildflowers, forbs, shrubs & trees, wetland and erosion control products, Arkansas Valley Seed has your native and reclamation seed needs covered.

Native Grasses

Arkansas Valley Seed supplies the highest quality native grass seed products for erosion control, revegetation, reclamation and restoration. We provide a selection of grasses native to the Western United States, Great Plains, Rocky Mountains, Intermountain regions and other areas throughout the US. We offer a variety of perennial warm- and cool-season native grass species including wheatgrass, ryegrass, bluegrass, fescue and other varieties. From Arizona Fescue to Canada Wildrye, Arkansas Valley Seed has your native grass seed needs covered.

Browse our wide selection of quality Native Grass Seed below or view all Reclamation and Native Seed Species.
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Native Grass Seed Products

Alkali Sacaton

A tough perennial, warm season, native growing in large bunches 24" to 42" tall. It grows on dry to moist sites with sand or gravelly soil. This species is used for good forage or grazing grass in lowland and in alkali regions. Alkali Sacaton's abundant herbage is eaten by cattle, sheep, and horses. It ranges from South Dakota to Washington, south to Missouri, Kansas, Texas, and Mexico. Varieties: Salado


Alkaligrass

A perennial, cool season, native bunchgrass standing 12 to 18" tall. It grows on a wide range of soils and can tolerate high amounts of salinity. This species is an excellent choice in reclamation, roadside stabilization or on saline sites requiring turf. Alkaligrass ranges from New Mexico to Canada and throughout the west. Varieties: Fults


Alpine Bluegrass

A perennial, cold tolerant, native bunchgrass that grows 8 to 24" tall. Grows well in cooler alpine, subalpine zones and mountain meadows. Prefers open sites and well-drained soils. Utilized for erosion control, reclamation and restoration. Occurs in Colorado, Utah, Washington and Oregon.


Alpine Timothy

A perennial, cold tolerant, native short grass that is traditionally a bunchgrass, but can exhibit some sod-forming capability. Grows 6 to 24" in height and is commonly found in mountain meadows, bogs and wet places. Also grows on relatively well-drained soils and grassy slopes. It is added to seed mixtures to revegetate livestock and big game ranges, to protect road, ski slopes and mined lands. Occurring in the cooler and higher regions of western United States.


Altai Wildrye

A perennial, cool season, introduced bunchgrass that grows 24 to 48" tall. It develops short rhizomes and is generally a drought tolerant and winterhardy. It has adapted to the loam and clay-loam soils of the prairies and is often used in pasture grass. Although the growth of Altai Wildrye is coarse, cattle and sheep find it very palatable. Found in Intermountain Regions and Northern Great Plains of Western United States.


Annual Ryegrass

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Arizona Cottontop

A perennial, warm season, native bunchgrass that grows 12 to 24" tall. It is a green to bluish-green in color and has adapted to a variety of soils from clay loam to sandy loam as well as loose gravelly soils. Primarily used for in revegetation of eroded rangelands, retired croplands, and to provide forage for wildlife and livestock. Common in the Southwest, from southern Colorado to Texas, Arizona, and northern Mexico.


Arizona Fescue

A long-lived, perennial, cool season native densely tufted bunchgrass growing 12 to 36" tall. Found on shallow clay loam to loam and sandy to gravely soils. A heavy root system is an excellent soil binder. Suited for revegetating and stabilizing disturbed soils, road, ski slopes and construction in the mountains. Moderately palatable, can be used for forage and range land restoration. Native to the ponderosa pine zone from Colorado to south to west Texas, Mexico and Nevada. Varieties: Redondo


Beardless Bluebunch Wheatgrass

A perennial, cool season, native, erect bunchgrass, 12 to 30” tall, often with short rhizomes. It has a wide spectrum of adaptations. It is found on all aspects on mountain slopes, benches, basins, or alluvial fans, and in valley bottoms. Adapted to a wide variety of soils, but is found mostly in well- drained, medium to coarse textures soils which vary in depth from shallow to very deep. Varieties: Whitmar

Beardless Wildrye

A perennial, cool season, native sod-forming grass. It is typically at least 20” tall with strong rhizomes. This grass grows on mostly heavy soils in riparian areas, bottomlands, valleys, foothills, mountain flats and meadows from coastal marshes to high elevations. Beardless Wildrye is used for soil stabilization on channel, stream and river slopes and restoration of roadside, riparian and rangeland areas. It is also a good source of forage. Varieties: Shoshone

Big Bluegrass

A long-lived perennial, cool season, native, bunchgrass growing 24 to 48” high. It is a tall, tufted grass that is remarkably drought resistant. Known for high production of palatable forage making it a very valuable range grass. Big Bluegrass is the largest of the native bluegrasses found in the intermountain zone of the north- west states. Varieties: Sherman

Big Bluestem

A perennial, warm season, native tufted, sod-forming grass. It is tall, reaching a height of 6 to 8 feet on most sites when left ungrazed. It has short, scaly rhizomes and seed heads that normally have 3 spikelets that appear like a ‘turkey foot.’ Occurring from the short grass prairie region to the Atlantic Ocean. Varieties: Bison | Bonilla | Champ | Kaw | Pawnee

Blue Grama

A common perennial, warm season, native bunchgrass reaching 10 to 20”. It reproduces by tillering and by seed. Mature seed heads are curved, resembling a human eyebrow. This grass demonstrates good drought, fair salinity, and moderate alkalinity tolerances. It does not tolerate dense shade, flooding, a high water table, or acid soils. Blue Grama is distributed throughout the western United States, but primarily throughout the Great Plains. Varieties: Alma | Bad River | Hachita | Lovington

Blue Wildrye

A large perennial, cool season, native bunchgrass growing up to 5’ in height. It is similar in stature and growth habit to slender wheatgrass. Blue Wildrye is good for streambank restoration, meadow and swale seeding. It is also excellent for reseeding burned or disturbed areas in oak woodland or forest. Found from California to Alaska and into the Great Plains and northern Mexico. Varieties: Arlington | Elkton

Bluebunch Wheatgrass

A long-lived perennial, cool season, native bunchgrass that grows to 18 to 48” tall with strong rhizomes. It is very drought resistant, persistent and adapted to stabilization of disturbed soils. This nutritious grass is used for hay production, but is better suited and more palatable when used for grazing. Most common to the northern Great Plains and the Intermountain regions of the western United States. Varieties: Anatone | Goldar | P-7 | Secar

Bottlebrush Squirreltail

A perennial, cool-season, native bunchgrass growing between 4 to 25” tall. Sometimes called “bristlegrass” and is considered to be one of the most fire resistant native bunchgrasses. It is considered to be fair to desirable forage for cattle, horses and sheep. Commonly found throughout the Rocky Mountain region and West. Varieties: Sand Hollow

Buffalograss

A perennial, low-growing warm- season, native sod-forming grass. Leaf blades are 10 to 12” long, but they fall over and give the turf a short appearance. This grass occurs naturally and grows best on clay loam to clay soils and does is not adapted to shaded sites. It has a low fertility requirement and it often will maintain good density without supplemental fertilization. Buffalograss is found throughout the Midwest. Varieties: Bison | Bowie (Turf-Type) | Cody (Turf- Type) | Sharps Improved II | Sharp Shooter (Turf-Type) | Texoka | Topgun (Turf-Type)

Canada Bluegrass

A perennial, cool season, introduced grass growing to an average of 24" and spreading by underground rhizomes. Canada Bluegrass is similar to Kentucky Bluegrass but is unrelated. It has some resistance to drought and salinity, and is used to reclaim disturbed areas such as gravel pits, cut roads, roadsides, and mines. It is widely distributed throughout the United States, but is mainly found in the northern states. Varieties: Canon | Reubens | Talon


Canada Wildrye

A short-lived perennial, cool season, native bunchgrass that grows to 48”. It is moderately drought tolerant and winter hardy, and has good tolerance to salinity and shade. Found on sandy shores and dunes; wooded areas, especially along trails, rivers and streams; and other disturbed sites. Canada Wildrye is found throughout the northeast, north, and western United States. Varieties: Mandan

Canby Bluegrass

A perennial, cool season, native bunchgrass that grows 8 to 16” tall. Canby Bluegrass is vigorous, long leaved, late maturing, and more productive than other Bluegrasses. Used as low maintenance turf and forest roads in northern Great Plains and Rocky Mountains. Common to the western U.S., Rocky Mountain, and northern Great Plains region. Varieties: Canbar

Cane Beardgrass

A perennial, warm season, native grass reaching heights of 2 to 4 feet. Leaves are green to blue-green in color and narrow, long, and rough. The seedhead is a raceme 3 to 5 inches long, silvery to creamy or silky white when ripe. It is considered to be good forage for wildlife and livestock when green but tends to become unpalatable when dry. Ideal for seeding arid southwestern landscapes. It is best suited for plantings on silty or clayey soils and is drought tolerant. It is found in the southwestern United States and Mexico.

Columbia Needlegrass

A perennial, cool season, native bunchgrass that grows 6 to 24” tall, without rhizomes. Growth starts in mid-spring, matures by September, reproduces from seeds and tillers; may regrow in the fall if moisture is adequate. Provides good forage for livestock and wildlife, however injury can occur from the sharp-pointed callus, working into the ears, eyes, nostrils, and tongues of grazing animals. Also used for rangelands and reclamation it is commonly found across Western US from Canada to Mexico.

Creeping Meadow Foxtail

A long-lived perennial, cool season, introduced sod-forming, grass that grows 12 to 24” tall. It is extremely winter hardy and recovers quickly from grazing due to its numerous aggressive underground rhizomes. Creeping Meadow Foxtail is palatable to all classes of livestock. Most commonly utilized throughout the Pacific Northwest, Intermountain West, Northern Great Plain States and western Canada. Varieties: Garrison

Crested Wheatgrass

A long-lived perennial, cool season, introduced bunch type reaching 12 to 36” tall. Drought tolerant, and winter hardy grass with an deep rooted system making and excellent soil binder. Crested wheatgrass is commonly recommended for a palatable forage production. Crested wheatgrass is well adapted to stabilization of disturbed soils and does well on shallow to deep, moderately course to fine textured, moderately well to well drained soils. The grass commonly seeded in the arid sections of the western United States. The Fairway type was first recognized in 1950 as being different than other crested types. Fairway is shorter, denser, finer stemmed, and less productive than Desert wheatgrass at lower elevations and may exceed Desert wheatgrass production at higher elevations. Newer varieties such as Eparaim and Roadcrest exhibit strong rhizone activity. Fairway Type Varieties: Douglas | Ephraim | Kirk | Parkway | Roadcrest | Ruff

Dahurian Wildrye

A short-lived perennial, cool season, introduced bunchgrass that grows 12 to 60” tall. Dahurian Wildrye has a deep root system allowing good drought tolerance, preferring well drained fertile soils. It germinates quickly and regrows aggressively after cutting and grazing, thus providing excellent palatable forage and making it common in pasture mixes. Located in the Northeast, Midwest, and Northwestern United States.

Desert Needlegrass

A perennial, cool season, native bunchgrass that grows at least 24” tall. It grows well in rocky, dry or sandy areas of the desert making it very drought tolerant. Primary use is for revegetation or landscape. Found across the southwest desert of the US and used in restoration seedings in the more arid portions of the Great Basin.

Desert Wheatgrass

A perennial, cool season, introduced bunchgrass 1 to 3 feet. It is later maturing and more productive than Crested Wheatgrass. More drought tolerant than crested or fairway, but less than the Siberian type. Found in the Northern Rocky Mountain Region. Desert Type Varieties: Nordan | Summit

Duhurain Wildrye

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Festulolium

A short-lived perennial, cool season, introduced bunchgrass. Derived from a cross between either Italian ryegrass and meadow fescue. Its ease of establishment and management, drought resistance, rapid regrowth and good disease resistance are combined with the season long productivity and high forage palatability quality. Varieties: Duo | Spring Green

Fowl Bluegrass

A perennial, cool season, native sod forming grass that grows 12 to 24” tall. Prefers fertile sandy to clayey alluvial soils and thrives in moist, cool, temperate climates and has winter hardiness. It is widely distributed in U.S. and used for lawns and landscaping, grows in meadows, stream banks and moist areas in northern U. S., south to New Mexico and California.

Foxtail Barley

A short-lived perennial, cool season, native bunchgrass without rhizomes, growing 12 to 24” tall. Foxtail Barley grows most abundant on poorly drained, wet soils, where textures vary from sandy loams to silty clay loams. It is tolerant of salts and alkali areas, but can be prone to become weedy. It is highly palatable to cattle and wildlife, and moderately palatable to sheep.

Galleta Grass

A perennial, warm season, native low coarse grass growing 3 to 20” tall. It reproduces from rhizomes and seeds, and occurs in a wide variety of soils, but is most abundant on fine textured soils where other grasses are rare. Galleta is a highly palatable forage plant for cattle, horses, and sheep, particularly when used during late spring and summer. It is useful for roadside seedings, campground, and picnic do to its high traffic tolerance. Varieties: Viva

Giant Dropseed

A perennial, warm season, native bunchgrass that grows atleast 24” tall. It prefers light sandy and medium loamy soils and requires well-drained soil and preferring acid, neutral and basic or alkaline soils. It cannot grow in the shade and requires dry or moist soil thus making it very drought tolerant. Because is has poor palatability it is commonly used for erosion control on sand dunes or blowouts. Found mainly in NM and other parts of southwest United States.

Great Basin Wildrye

A large long-living perennial, cool season, native bunchgrass growing an average of 3 to 6 feet tall. Due to its extensive deep, coarse fibrous root system, Great Basin Wildrye adapts well to broad climates, stabilizes disturbed soils, and is very winter hardy. In addition, it is palatable to all classes of livestock and wildlife and is native to the Great Plains and Intermountain regions of the western United States. Varieties: Magnar | Trailhead

Green Needlegrass

A perennial, cool season, native bunchgrass growing between a height of 18 to 36”. It grows on medium to fine-textured soils. Green Needlegrass naturally occurs on bottomlands, flat benches and overflow area along streams. It is an important native of the Northern Great Plains, and is found as far south as Arizona. Varieties: Lodorm

Green Sprangletop

A short-lived perennial, warm season, native, bunchgrass growing 24 to 42” tall. Grows well on rocky sites and soils, and is cold and drought tolerant. It is primarily used for erosion control and grazing as it is highly palatable and nutritious to all classes of livestock. It is adapted throughout Texas, Southern New Mexico, and Southeast Arizona and Florida.

Hard Fescue

A long-lived perennial, cool season, introduced densely tufted bunchgrass growing 4 to 6” high. It is closely related to Chewings Fescue and a form of Sheep Fescue. It has broader, longer, coarser, more lax leaves than Sheep Fescue. It is a heavy root producer and drought tolerant. In addition, its abundant dense leaves and low crowns makes it an excellent erosion control plant. Primary use has been for soil protection on road sides, ditchbanks, airports, skid trails in the higher rainfall zones, and as a cover crop in irrigated orchards and windbreaks. Varieties: Durar Please See Turf Species section.

Hybrid Wheatgrass

A hybrid cross between standard and Desert wheatgrass, which results in a plant with excellent seedling stamina that establishes quickly. It is taller and has higher yielding forage potential than its parents during establishment. Hybrid Type Varieties: CD-II | Hycrest

Idaho Fescue

A perennial, cool season, native bunchgrass 12 to 36” tall. Although it will grow anywhere, it prefers silt loam or sandy loam soils. Idaho Fescue has excellent cold tolerance, moderate drought tolerance, moderate shade tolerance, and adapted to stabilization of disturbed soils. It is one of the most common and widely distributed grasses in the Western United States. Varieties: Joseph | Winchester

Indian Ricegrass

A short to medium lived perennial, cool season, native bunchgrass growing 8 to 30” tall. It is very winter hardy, has a broad climatic adaptation and prefers dry and primarily loamy- sandy-gravelly sites. Indian Ricegrass is highly palatable to livestock and wildlife. One of its greatest assets is stabilizing sites susceptible to wind erosion. Indian Ricegrass is generally found in the plains, foothills, mountains, and intermountain basins of the western United States. Varieties: Nezpar | Paloma | Rimrock

Indiangrass

A perennial, warm-season grass, native bunchgrass growing 3 to 5 feet tall. It grows best in deep, well-drained floodplain soils and is highly tolerant of poorly to excessively well-drained soils, acid to alkaline conditions, and textures ranging from sand to clay. Indiangrass once dominated the prairies of the central and eastern United States, but today has adapted to the Northeast west to Texas and North Dakota. Varieties: Cheyenne | Holt | Llano | Osage | Tomahawk

Intermediate Ryegrass

A short-lived perennial, cool season, introduced bunchgrass. It is the result of a cross between annual and perennial ryegrass. It has a finer leaf texture, very heat tolerant, and is less winter hardy but higher yielding than perennial ryegrass. Intermediate Ryegrass is used for grazing, or as a great rotation crop, hay production in northern Michigan, Minnesota, and Wisconsin. Varieties: Bison

Intermediate Wheatgrass

A long-lived perennial, cool season, introduced grass growing 36 to 48” tall. It has short rhizomes and a deep feeding root system, preferring well drained loamy to clayey textured soils. Intermediate Wheatgrass will tolerate slightly acidic to mildly saline conditions, can withstand moderate periodic flooding in the spring, and is very tolerant of fire. It has good palatability to livestock and wildlife and adapts well to the stabilization of disturbed soils. Varieties: Oahe

Kentucky Bluegrass

A perennial, cool-season, introduced sod-forming grass 18 to 24” tall. It is a darker green foliage, longer leaves, and pubescence at the bases of the leaves. In the west, it is very abundant and frequently used for hay and forage for sheep and cattle. In the east, it is planted as a pasture grass, but not usually used for hay. Varieties: Troy | Ginger. Also hundreds of commercially available turf-type varieties, please see Turf Species Section.

Kleingrass

A perennial, warm season, introduced bunchgrass grows 36 to 48” tall at maturity. Adapted to a wide range of heavy soils and dry conditions. Performs well on loamy to clayey soils and is salt tolerant. Considerable drought tolerance but not cold tolerant. Common in southern New Mexico, and Oklahoma, Texas, and Arizona.

Lehmanns Lovegrass

A perennial, warm season, introduced sod forming grass that grows 12 to 24” tall. Adapted to a wide variety of sites, and is drought tolerant. It has good palatability for livestock and the seed passes unharmed through the animal assisting with reseeding. Can persist for several years in the soil until soil has adequate moisture for growth. Found across southwest United States.

Letterman Needlegrass

A perennial, cool season, native bunchgrass with mostly glabrous stems that are 6 to 24” tall. Provides valuable forage for many species of wildlife and domestic livestock, and excellent reclamation grass for upper elevation regions. Found across the Western United States.

Little Bluestem

A slow growing perennial, warm season, native bunchgrass reaching a height from 18” in dry areas to 3 to 5 feet in deep in fertile soils. It displays coarse stems and basal leaves are greenish-blue to purplish in color, and grows on a wide variety of soils, but is very well adapted to well- drained, medium to dry, infertile high salinity soils. Resistant to trampling and fair forage it is very palatable for livestock, deer, and elk and suitable for hay. Distributed throughout the United States. Varieties: Aldous | Blaze| Camper| Cimmaron| Pastura

Mammoth Wildrye

A perennial, cool season, native sod forming grass that grows 24 to 48” tall. Used for stabilizing inland sand dunes, mine tailings and permanent cover on shallow to deep sands. Moderately tolerant of saline and saline sodic soils. It has poor palatability due to its course leaves, but it has been grazed in drought situations. Adapted to the Pacific Northwest it is and in Intermountain region. Varieties: Volga

Meadow Barley

A short-lived perennial, cool season, native bunchgrass that grows 12 to 14” tall. Establishes rapidly and is a good cover crop in orchards and vineyards. Tolerates drought as well as infertile, alkaline, compacted soil. Meadow Barley is especially useful in reclamation and erosion control. Common in the Western States and some of the North Eastern States.

Meadow Brome

A long-lived perennial, cool season, introduced grass that spreads by short rhizomes. Reaching 2 to 6 feet in height when irrigated. Its primary use is for rotational forage production and is highly palatable to all classes of livestock and wildlife. Meadow Brome is very winter hardy. It performs best on fertile, moderately deep to deep, well-drained soils. Used in cool moist climates of across the Northern United States. Varieties: Fleet | Montana PVP | Paddock | Regar

Meadow Fescue

A short-lived perennial, cool season, introduced bunchgrass that grows 6 to 12” tall. It is slow to establish but is very palatable and highly productive. Commonly found on cool and moist sites across the Pacific Northwest and Northern US.

Mountain Brome

A short-lived, perennial, cool season, native bunchgrass growing 3 to 4 feet tall. Prefers deep, fertile, mesic soils of medium to fine textures, but also survives on thin, dry or coarse soils, resulting in lower production levels. It is winter hardy and has good shade tolerance and fair tolerance to fire. Well adapted to the Northwestern regions, the foothills and mountains of the Intermountain West and some Midwestern States. Varieties: Bromar, Garnet

Muttongrass

A long-lived perennial, cool season, native bunchgrass that usually grows 12 to 24” tall. Leaves are 2 to 12” long, growing largely from the base of the plant has clusters of small silvery pink flowers. It is closely related to Cusick’s Bluegrass. This is a common grass of open woodland and forested areas and commonly used for grazing. Grown on a wide range of elevation and ranges on the Western part of the United States.

Needle & Thread Grass

A perennial, cool season, native bunchgrass growing 12 to 36” tall. It is without rhizomes, erect to ascending growing, and its seed has a sharp attachment point with beards near the point, and is very drought tolerant. It has adapted to excessively drained, sandy or gravelly soils and also to shallow or deep sandy loam, fine sandy loam, or even clays that are shallow to deep. It is widely distributed throughout the Western United States.

Needle Grama

An annual, warm season, native bunchgrass that grows 6 to 12” tall. Use for erosion control on unstable soils. Persists on dry hillsides across the higher deserts of Arizona, southern California and northern Mexico.

Newhy Hybrid Wheatgrass

A long lived perennial, cool season, introduced, sod-forming grass that grows 12 to 24” tall. Its cross between quackgrass and Bluebunch Wheastgrass making it both aggressive and productive. Will recover quickly after grazing. Used on both irrigated and dryland sites throughout the western United States.

Nodding Brome

A perennial, cool season, native bunchgrass that grows 6 to 12” tall. It adapts well to coarse textured soils and is drought tolerate. It is highly palatable for grazing livestock and wildlife. Found on dry, coarse textured soils across Idaho, Utah and Arizona.

Orchardgrass

A persistent perennial, cool season, introduced bunchgrass, forming distinct flowering clumps 24 to 48” tall. It is one of the earliest species to grow in the spring, making tremendous growth during cool conditions. It performs well on different textured soils ranging from clay to gravely loams and on shallow to deep soils. The primary use of Orchardgrass is for forage production and is highly palatable to all livestock. Found in the high-rainfall regions of the western mountains and in irrigated areas throughout the West. Varieties: Latar | Paiute |Potomac. Plus numerous others.

Perennial Ryegrass

A perennial, cool season, introduced bunchgrass growing to a height of 18 to 36”. Perennial Ryegrass is one of the most widely used grasses and is adaptable to a wide variety of soils and climatic conditions. With a leafy head and fine stem, it is considered very palatable, used for both forage and hay. A proven performer pastures in the northern area of the United States. Varieties: Linn (Diploid) | Herbie (Diploid) | Elgon (Tetraploid) plus numerous others. Please see Turf Species Section.

Plains Bristlegrass

A perennial, warm season, native bunchgrass that can grow up to 36” in height. Found on open dry ground, in dry woods, and on well drained soils along gullies, stream courses, and other areas occa- sionally with abundant moisture. It provides mod- erate to high quality forage for all types of grazing livestock. Plains bristlegrass makes up an apprecia- ble part of the forage on southwestern ranges.

Plains Lovegrass

A perennial, warm season, native bunchgrass growing 15 to 36”’ tall. Poor grazing for wildlife, good grazing for livestock. Grows best on rich soils on rocky, gravelly or sandy land. Most commonly found throughout Southwest of the United States.

Prairie Junegrass

A perennial, cool season, native bunchgrass that grows 12 to 30” tall. Persists in open woodlands and ponderosa pine at higher elevations. Use for revegetating rangeland, mine sites and other disturbed sites. Commonly found across southern Canada to Texas, California, and Washington.

Prairie Sandreed

A long-lived perennial, warm season, native sod-forming grass growing 24 to 72” in height possessing rigid, leafy stems. Used mostly for range seedings in mixtures; prefers sandy sites and is drought tolerance and winter hardy. Prairie Sandreed is found in northern and central Great Plains and intermountain desertic basins plant growth regions. Varieties: Bowman | Goshen

Pubesent Wheatgrass

A long-lived perennial, cool season, introduced sod-forming grass 36 to 48”. The grass has basal type leaves and spreads by rhizomes. Its strongest asset is its ability to stay green into the summer months when soil moisture is adequate. It has adapted to a wide range of conditions, including low- fertility soils, and saline soil tolerant, making it drought and winter tolerant. Pubescent Wheatgrass yields high- quality hay and pasture grass. Varieties: Most common varieties are: Greenleaf | Luna | Mandan | Manska

Purple Three-Awn

A perennial, warm season, native bunchgrass that grows up to 16” in height. Deep rooted growing in well drained soils. It has good forage potential is good and provides grass cover in hot deserts of the southwest. Found across the western United States.

Quickguard

An annual, cool season, introduced cover grass. A sterile, non-reseeding, cross between wheat and cereal rye grass. Well adapted to a wide range of soil varieties. Used for reclamation and stabilization of disturbed areas. Adapted all across the United States.

Red Three-Awn

A perennial, warm season, native bunchgrass that grows 8 to 16” tall. Deep rooted growing in well drained soils. A very competitive grass, it is best suited for disturbed sites and for erosion control. Found across parts of the western United States.

Red Top

A perennial, cool season, introduced sod-forming grass growing to 30 or 40” tall. A coarse but fairly dense turf that has slender stems. It will grow under a wide variety of soil and moisture conditions; is drought- resistant and also grows well on poorly drained soils. Redtop is used for erosion control, pastures, temporary grass in turf seedings and occasionally for hay. It is distributed throughout most of the United States. Varieties: Streaker

Reed Canarygrass

A long-lived perennial, cool season, introduced sod-forming grass reaching a height of 6 to 8 feet. The extensive, rhizomatous root system protects it from drought, but is also suited to wet soils and dense growth of coarse erect stems, providing excellent erosion control, especially along stream banks, shorelines and waterways. It can be found throughout the west, north, and northeastern United States. Varieties: Chiefton | Palaton

Regreen

An annual, cool season, introduced cover grass. A sterile, non-reseeding, cross between wheat and Tall Wheatgrass. Well adapted to a wide range of soil varieties. Used for reclamation and stabilization of disturbed areas. Adapted all across the United States.

Rocky Mountain Fescue

A long-lived perennial, cool season, native bunchgrass. Cold and drought tolerant, it persists on fertile, silty and clayey soils, growing in well-drained meadows, sub-humid grassland sites. Rocky Mountain Fescue may be used on rangeland or erosion control on mine sites. Common at higher, subalpine and alpine elevations in the Rocky Mountains and the Northwest of the United States.

Rothrock's Grama

A perennial, warm season, native bunchgrass that grows 6 to 12” tall. It is drought tolerant thriving on poor rocky soils. Used for reclamation in parts of Utah, Arizona and New Mexico.

Rough Bluegrass

A perennial, cool season, introduced grass that spreads by stolons and forms dense, thick patches. The leaf blades are upright at first, but tend to lay down and mat as the patches become older. It is capable of withstanding a considerable amount of shade if sufficient moisture is present. Rough bluegrass is considered a nuisance in the Rocky Mountain region but can be a beneficial grass in other parts of the US.

Rough Fescue

A perennial, cool season, native bunchgrass averaging 12 to 14” in height. The basal leaves have a purple coloration and are firm, rough and tightly enrolled. Thrives on sandy loams to moderately- heavy soils thus the highest producing bunchgrass in the mountain grasslands. It is not tolerant of any extremes in soil salinity or acidity, or drought tolerant. It can be found in open mountain grasslands to the foothills and northern prairie.

Russian Wildrye

A long-lived perennial, cool season, introduced bunchgrass reaching 2 to 4 feet in height. It can be grown on a fairly wide range of soil types, but is most productive on fertile loam soils to heavy clay soils. Russian Wildrye is exceptionally cold and drought tolerant and is one of the most versatile forage grasses available for dryland pastures. Established in the Rocky Mountain region. Varieties: Bozoisky | Swift | Vinall

Sand Blustem

A perennial, warm season, native bunch grass and in the best growing conditions it can reach 7 feet in height. It is often used in erosion control plantings on sandy, loamy sand or sandy loam sites. Sand Bluestem is a good to excellent forage due to its palatability and high yield. Predominantly found west of the Mississippi River to the Rocky Mountains and from Canada to Mexico. Varieties: Elida | Garden County | Goldstrike | Woodward

Sand Dropseed

A perennial, warm season, native bunchgrass growing 16 to 40” tall. It is without rhizomes and commonly grows on sandy soils but is adapted to medium textured soils also. It is not tolerant of wet soils. Sand Dropseed is very essential grass for wind erosion control on sandy soil sites.

Sand Lovegrass

A perennial, warm season, native bunchgrass that grows 24 to 60” tall. Persists on deep sands and sandy loam soils. Occurring in central and southern Great Plains. Varieties: Bend | Nebraska 27

Sandberg Bluegrass

A long-lived perennial, cool season, native bluegrasses reaches 24 to 48” in height. It thrives on a variety of soils from moderately coarse sands to fine clays. Sandberg Bluegrass is distributed throughout the Western United States.

Sheeps Fescue

A perennial, cool season, introduced bunchgrass that grows 12 to 24” tall. Well adapted to most soil conditions and can be used for erosion control and low- maintenance mixtures. Found across the entire United States. Varieties: Bighorn | Covar | MX-86 Please see Turf Species Section.

Siberian Wheatgrass

A long-lived perennial, cool season, introduced bunchgrass. Similar to Desert Wheatgrass, Siberian is more drought tolerant and retains its greenness and palatability later into the summer than standard, fairway or even the hybrid cross types. Siberian Type Varieties: P27 | Vavilov

Sideoats Grama

A medium-size perennial, warm season, bunchgrass or sod-forming grass grows 15 to 30” tall or occasionally taller. Sideoats Grama is a large and course grass, found on rocky open slopes, woodlands, and forest openings up to an elevation of about 7,000 feet. It has adapted to most soil conditions and one of the most important range grasses. Sideoats grama is distributed throughout most of the United States. Varieties Butte | El Reno | Haskell | Killdear | Niner | Pierre | Premier | Trailway | Vaughn

Slender Wheatgrass

A short-lived perennial, cool season, native tufted bunchgrass ranging in height from 24 to 30”. It has very short rhizomes which prefer loams and sandy loams. It is a relative species to the mountain and intermountain areas of the western United States and the northern Great Plains. Varieties: Pryor | Revenue | San Luis

Smooth Brome

A perennial, cool season, introduced sod-forming growing 24 to 48” spread by rhizomes. Frequently the leaves are marked by a transverse wrinkle resembling a “W” a short distance below the tip. It is resistant to drought and extremes in tem- perature. Smooth brome is the most widely used of the cultivated brome- grasses. It is distributed throughout most of the United States. Varieties: Carlton | Lincoln | Manchar

Spike Muhly

A perennial, warm season, native bunchgrass that grows 12 to 18” tall. Adapted to wide spectrum of soils, it can be used for revegetation on rangelands, mine lands and other reclaimed sites. Found across southwestern Colorado, Utah, Arizona, New Mexico, Oklahoma and Texas. Varieties: El Vado

Streambank Wheatgrass

A long-lived perennial, cool season, native grass growing from 12 to 36” tall. The leaves have a light green and grey tint and are somewhat curled on the ends. It is drought tolerant and commonly used for reclamation and not forage production. Found in the northern Great Plains and Intermountain regions of the western United States. Varieties: Sodar

Switchgrass

A perennial, warm season, native sod- forming grass that grows 3 to 5 feet tall. Switchgrass is very tolerant of poor soils, flooding and drought. Seedlings tend to be slow to develop, and are susceptible to weed competition. Prefers moderately deep to deep, somewhat dry to poorly drained, sandy to clay loam soils are best. Provides high quality pasture and hay for livestock. Also used for reclamation sand dunes and dikes. It has climatically adapted throughout most of the United States. Varieties: Alamo | Blackwell | Cave-in-Rock | Dacotah | Forestburg | Kanlow | Nebraska 28 | Grenville

Tall Fescue

A long-lived perennial, cool season, introduced deep-rooted, bunchgrass growing up to 5 feet. It will grow fairly well on soils low in fertility, but it is better adapted to fertile conditions. Beware of endophytes in this species especially when feeding to livestock. Adaptation regions include all area east of the Great Plains, except southern and central Florida. Varieties: Fawn | KY-31. Plant breeders have developed tall fescue cultivars for every region of the tall fescue adaptation area. These cultivars include both forage and turf types, and low and high endophyte types. Please see Turf Species Section.

Tall Wheatgrass

A perennial, cool season, introduced bunchgrass that grows 3 to 7 feet tall. It is a tall, coarse, late-maturing grass that is especially tolerant of saline or alkali soils and adapted to either irrigated or sub-irrigated. It prefers soils with a high water table. Used in wildlife plantings where it is tall, persistent, bunchy growth provides nesting sites and cover for upland gamebirds. Occurring in the in the Rocky Mountain region from north New Mexico to Canada. Varieties: Alkar | Jose | Largo | Platte

Thickspike Wheatgrass

It is a long-lived perennial, cool season, native sod-forming grass grows from 12 to 36” tall. Its extensive rhizomatous root system combined with a few deep roots makes it more drought tolerant than western wheatgrass. This species is common to the northern Great Plains and Intermountain regions of the western United States. Varieties: Bannock | Critana | Schwendimar

Thurbur Fescue

A long-lived perennial, cool season, native densely tufted bunchgrass, growing 18 to over 36” tall. Without rhizomes, it prefers deep, well- developed, medium to fine textured soils and does best on deep, sandy loam soils. Thurber’s Fescue is good to fair forage for cattle, sheep, horse, elk, and deer during the spring season. Limited in its distribution to the high mountain slopes and valley bottoms.

Timothy

A relatively short-lived perennial, cool season, introduced bunchgrass grows in erect stools or culms 20 to 40” tall. It has a shallow, compact, and fibrous root system which thrives best on rich, moist bottomlands and on finer textured soils, such as clay loams, and does not do well on coarser soils. Timothy is palatable and nutritious and mostly for used for hay but also makes good pasture and silage. It has adapted to a cool and humid climate and distributed throughout the entire United States. Varieties: Climax | Drummond

Tufted Hairgrass

A short-lived perennial, cool season, native densely tufted, bunchgrass, growing 24 to 48”. It grows in deep, moisture-saturated, poorly or drained soils, and well-developed soils. It is somewhat tolerant to salt and alkalinity. Tufted Hairgrass is considered to be a good forage livestock and wildlife. It resists toxic wastes, and is therefore often used in the reclamation of mining sites. It is also recommended for the reclamation of subalpine, alpine, and mountain meadow habitats. Found in the Rocky Mountain region and west to the coast, and northeastern states. Varieties: Nortran

Weeping Lovegrass

A rapidly growing perennial, warm- season, introduced bunchgrass, reaching heights of 2 to 4 feet. The drooping basal shape leaf characteristic gives rise to the name “weeping” lovegrass. Prefers a light- textured, well-drained soil, and will thrive on soils of low fertility. It produces excellent pasture during early spring and fall if grazed close it palitable. Weeping lovegrass is distributed throughout the Southern Great Plains of the United States.

Western Wheatgrass

A long-lived perennial, cool season native sod-forming grass growing in small clusters from 12 to 36” tall. It is common to moist, sometimes saline to saline-sodic, and medium to fine textured soils. It has adapted to stabilization of disturbed soils because of its extensive, strong spreading rhizomes combined with a few deep roots. A good hay source and forage to domestic and wild animals across the Great Plains, Southwest, and Intermountain regions of the western United States. Varieties: Arriba | Flintlock | Barton | Rosana | Rodan | Walsh